메소포타미아 문명 역사 2화 – 인류 최초의 점성술 & 수메르 초기왕조 시대 [ 10분 세계사 ] 루갈작기시 사르곤 1세

메소포타미아 문명 역사 2화 – 인류 최초의 점성술 & 수메르 초기왕조 시대 [ 10분 세계사 ] 루갈작기시 사르곤 1세


Known as the oldest civilization in world history, the Sumerian civilization can be divided into
Ubaid, Uruk, and Jemdet Nasr, according to the period. On the last video,
as the oldest civilization, the Sumerians, invented characters and used the cuneiform, and they were the first people to make and drink beer. They are also the first to conceptualize
the calendar and the days of the week. Furthermore, Sumerians used astrology and read different fortunes, and they used stars, or many other ways. Nowadays, like love fortune or money fortune, it is focused on an individual’s future, and it is done for fun, but in ancient times, astrology was
used for predicting the nation’s future, or whether or not the farming would be successful,
so it was very important. There are some differences in the periods, according to the historical flow, but anyway, the Sumerians believed that human fate was decided by the movement of celestial beings, and they became the starters of astronomy, because of their interest in
the movement of the stars and astrology. The Sumerians, who created
the concept of calendar and time, were well aware of the phenomena of heavenly bodies, which
is a remarkable ancient astronomical achievement. compared to the slow scientific advances
that many people believed that the Earth was flat until the 16th century A.D. Sumerians called the Northern sky ‘Enlil’s road’, and the Southern sky ‘Enki’s road’, and the zodiac sky ‘Anu’s road’, and this corresponds exactly to
the 12 signs of the modern zodiac. and the 12 signs of the zodiac was named after
grouping the stars of each part together. Astrology was made through
observing these celestial phenomena, and the ancient astrologists
usually observed the constellation, sun, moon, comets, and meteors to predict the future. It was in charge of deciding important political matters,
so it became an official subject, but in modern times, it is regarded as unscientific. The start of astrology was
from the Mesopotamian region, but the scope got bigger, after the Helenian Era of Alexander the Great. It spread from
the Mesopotamian region to Greece and Egypt. Astrology continued on to
the Roman empire and the Persian Era, but after the Edict of Milan in the beginning of
the 4th century, Christianity became stronger, and astrology began to decline. Sumerians predicted
the future using ways other than stars, they sometimes predicted
good or bad luck from dropping oil on water, or they believed
that a war would start soon if a white dog ran around. Furthermore, there were ways
such as the crystal glass of the Gypsy. After they caught an animal,
they would take the liver out, and would predict the future looking at
the color and shape of the liver. Jemdet Nasr, which is
the last period of Sumerian civilization, was a period between BC 2900 to 2600, and it was the real beginning of the bronze age, and large scale city revolution happened, resulting in a lot of city states. In southern Mesopotamia, following Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Umma was formed, and in the North, Nippur, Kish, Babylon was formed From the Jemdet Nasr period, the Sumerians, because of the formation of many city states,
started to fight with each other, and the 30 different city states started to
combine with each other, and begin to develop into territorial nation states, we call this the Early Dynastic period. In the Sumer cities of the Early Dynastic period, the political, economic, and social aspects, were all centered in temples, and it was a country where the ‘Ensi’ priests ruled, but when there was conflict surrounding farming land, a king called ‘Rugal’ was appointed. In the late Early Dynastic period, the kings fiercely competed with each other, and in BC 2550, the power of
Sumer goes to the Lagash dynasty. The city state Lagash enjoyed its glorious days, upon the Eanatum dynasty, and Eanatum defeated the Elamite of the east, and in conquered Umma, Uruk, and Ur one by one, and finally conquered Kish,
which served the rule of suzerain of Sumer, and it became a strong power of Mesopotamia. However, after the death of Eanatum, as it passed on to the grandson, Entemena, the society becomes more and more devastated. Unlike the kings of the beginning of the country,
who provided the background for developing into a strong country from a weak one,
as the country became stronger, the later kings of Lagash, held a lot of power from birth, so as time passed, the peaceful times were ruined and the tyranny of the authorities besides
the king went to the extreme. There were corrupt priests and bureaucrats,
and the rich were greedy everywhere, but the kings of Sumer stood on
the side of the establishment, and the lives of people became
devastated due to overtaxing. From merchants of markets to farmers who grew crops, and even when holding funerals, strong tax was applied even after their family died, people couldn’t even hold funerals
because of the burden of tax. So, the citizens of Lagash became outraged, and eliminated the kingship around BC 2400, and picked a new leader from another family. If the ruling of the country wasn’t done properly, even if it was the king, they took down the throne, so it is sometimes called
‘the first civil revolution of humanity.’ Urukagina, who was appointed as the new leader, banned the embezzlement of wealth and all misrule, that the ‘Ensi’ priests had been doing, And focused on correcting the unfair tax. He also introduced
the public service concept for the first time in history. Which led to the banning of
paying taxes on national services. It prevented the priests from
making personal use of the temple land, and the temple became open to all citizens. As for orphans and widows
who were the weakest in the society of the time, the existing powers were at their disposal. In Urukagina’s reformation, the protection of
the orphans and the widows was emphasized, Later, also in Hammurabi’s Law, in the Bible and
in the Quran, this information was emphasized, making impact on protecting the weaker classes. Urukagina stood 1st in protecting the weaker classes, it was changing its social systems according to it, However, this change was
not very welcomed by the nobles of Lagash, At the same time,
neighboring countries were growing their military power. While Urukagina in Lagash was doing politics,
taking care of the socially disadvantaged, In the neighboring country, Umma, ‘Lugal-zage-si’ was crowned as
the king Who had been the Ensi, the priest, His toughness for the Umma’s citizen, was a motivation, to make Umma a stronger nation. It was a motivation to make the country stronger. The bold social reformation of
Urukagina, king of Lagash, seemed to be creating a peaceful country,
while giving comfort to the citizens, However, the existing nobles were
having their benefits removed. Thus, Urukagina,
who favored the lower and weaker classes, was not liked by the nobles. The nobles started to search for a new power, The king of the neighboring country Umma,
who was greatly enlarging his power, Lugal-zage-si gained their interest. Lugal-zage-si focused on economic and military
development and enlarged his countries’ power. He eventually won in the battle with
Lagash, so he conquered Lagash. Urukagina’s attempt to reform
the society to one that cared for the weak reached an end in 7 years,
along with the end of its country. Lugal-zage-si continued expanding his territory.
Into Uruk and Ur. He extended his territory from the Persian Gulf to Syria, including the Mediterranean coast, When he was at his highest power, ‘From the lower sea to the upper sea’ or ‘From end of the East to the end of the West’, he had no one against him. He ends up ruling Sumer for 25 years. So while the Sumerians ruled the Mesopotamia, In Kish, ‘Sargon’, a descendant of the Semites, was born. The Semites, in the Bible, survived after the Great Flood, They are the descendants of Shem. Shem is one of
the three sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. The Semitic Akkadians were in
the northern Mesopotamian region they had built a Kish city state and
were living with the Sumerians. Sargon the 1st becomes
a major power after Lugal-zage-si. He was the core of the power during the time He is also assumed to be a myth. The myth of Sargon’s birth is
similar to the birth of Horus in Egypt, or to the myth of Moses’ birth In the well known myth of Moses’s birth, The king of Egypt ordered to
kill the children of the Jews, thus Moses was thrown away into the Nile. However he became a son of
an Egyptian princess and became a royal family. The birth myth of Sargon around 2360 B.C is similar that Sargon who was abandoned in the Euphrates River was founded by Aki, who was a gardener for
the Royal Duke. The story begins like this. Aki adopted the baby The child was named ‘Sharru’ which meant ‘genuine’. Sharru grew up to become
a handsome and powerful young man. His popularity was carried on
to the goddess of love and birth, ‘Ishtar’. If you compare Ishtar to the Greek Myth, she is similar to Aphrodite. After meeting Ishtar, Sharru comes to worship her, in Sharru’s dream Ishtar would appear and tell him to kill Urzababa, the king of Kish,
and commands him to become the true king. Sharru tells this ominous story to Urzababa honestly, however, this ends up breaking
the trust that has been built between them, making the two hostile against each other In the end, Sharru becomes the king by
starting a coup, killing the king. And became ‘Sargon the 1st’ meaning the true king. He may have had a guilty conscience about his betrayal, but Sargon the 1st told himself, that he was justified as king by Goddess Ishtar. So he started conquering
neighboring cities and enlarged his power. Lugal-zage-si, who was ruling the Sumerian city states, mobilized all his forces to avenge the death of Urzababa,
the king of Kish, whom he was very close with. he attacked Sargon the 1st, However, the great army of Lugal-zage-si was destroyed
by Sargon’s chariot troops and mercenaries. Lugal-zage-si, who ruled Sumerian for
25 years at his time, lost to Sargon. He faced a humiliating death by
being tied to a dog leash. The first civilization began with the Sumerians. However, the first king to unify the entire Mesopotamia, was Sargon the 1st. Who was an ‘Akkad’. This ends the Sumerian’s early dynasty. And the Akkadian Empire follows. Today, following the last lecture,
we looked at the Sumerian civilizations, the theorem on astrology and
the early dynasty period and the story of Sargon the 1st’s ascension. This was Knowledge YouTube with
an interesting history. 10 minutes World history

38 thoughts on “메소포타미아 문명 역사 2화 – 인류 최초의 점성술 & 수메르 초기왕조 시대 [ 10분 세계사 ] 루갈작기시 사르곤 1세

  1. ◈ 유튜브 자막기능을 켜보세요. ◈

    – 한국어 자막/English subtitles

    – 日本語字幕/subtitulo de espanol

  2. 오래 지속될 줄 알았던 수메르인들의 국가가 아카드인들에 의해 멸망하는군요.
    루갈작기시 이름 어렵네요 ;;; 사르곤 1세의 활약상도 더 궁금해지는데요~

  3. Wow~수메르인의 맥주와 점성술의 역사까지 다양한 것들도 만들었군요.
    오늘도 유익한 영상 감사합니다. 좋은하루 되세요.😊

  4. 메소포타미아도 그렇고 수메르 왕조도 그렇고 이런거 학교에선 잘 가르쳐주지 않는 얘기라 책으로 접할 수 밖에 없는데 일목요연하게 잘 정리해주셨네요. 고대 문명은 언제나 흥미 가득입니다!^^b

  5. 종교인이 본연의 모습을 잃고 탐욕에 눈이 멀면 일반인이 힘들죠…
    요즘 우리나라 신천지와 일부 기독교의 이기심이 우리 국민을 어렵게 하는 거같아 안타깝네요…
    흥미로운 내용 소개 감사합니다
    항상 응원합니다~~~

  6. 아이고 ㅎ 영상잘보고 있습니다.
    편집하다가 중간쉬는타임이네요.
    하루 한두개 이상 올리다보니 체력이 후덜덜해집니다.
    역사공부는 매일해도 그날은 기억하는데 잊어버리지만 여기에서 들은 내용은 신기하게 잘남는답니다 헤헤 ~~🤗🤗

  7. 메소포타미아 2탄이네요~
    점성술~별점~
    국가의 흥망이나 경제적인걸 많이봤네요~
    고대첨문학을~놀랍네요~
    천체현상~조은파파가 메소포타미아 열씨미 들으라고
    뒤에서 압박하네요~책을 넘 안읽는다고요~ㅋㅋ
    나이기 들수록 어제한말도 기억이 안날때가 있네요~
    초기왕조시대~신전국가~고아와 과부 보호~약자보호시스템~
    한 일년 열씨미 들으면 몇개국은 제대로 알겠죠?ㅋㅋㅋ

  8. 헉.. 동물점.. 점을 보기 위해 동물들을.. ㅡ,.ㅡ
    오늘은 사르곤 이야기도 너무 흥미롭게 잘 들었습니다. ^^
    책으로 읽는 재미도 있겠지만.. 이렇게 직접 듣는 이야기도 너무 좋아요~! ^^

  9. 점성술이라 ㅎㅎ
    저는 과학 제일주의라 ㅎㅎ 눈에 보이지 않는것을 잘 믿지 않습니다.
    오늘도 정말 좋은 컨텐츠 만들어주셔서 감사합니다.
    근신도 하루이틀이지 슬슬 지치고 있습니다 .ㅎㅎ
    백과님도 항상 건강하세요.

  10. 채널 컨텐츠 제작하시다보면 저절로 온갖상식이 쌓이시겠어요…세상 제일 아는거 많으신분! 수메르…함무라비법전! 스쳐지나듯 나왔지만 아는거나오니 반가워 ㅎ

  11. 제가 점성술 좋아하는데 수메르인 덕분에 제가 혜택을 누리는 거였네요 ㄹㅎ
    세금 부담 때문에 장례식도 못지냈다는 얘기에 정말 탄식이 나옵니다 ㅠㅠ
    고대나 현대나 기본 인권을 지켜주는 게 중요한 거 같아요 약자든 강자든 사람답게 살 수 있는 기본 바운더리는 지켜주리를 ㅠㅠ

  12. 점을 동물 간으로. ㄷ ㄷ ㄷ
    마녀사냥 이런거보면 옛날이 더 잔인했던거 같아요 잘 보고 갑니다

  13. 하핫..메소포타미아 문명. 생소한 내용 많이 배웠습니다. 모세이야기가 나오나니 놀랍네요. 저번 영상도 잘보고 갔는데 선생님 구독자분들이 많이 늘어나셔서 바쁘실까봐 좋아요만 살포시 누르고 갔습니다.^^

  14. 약자를 보호하는 우루카기나의 사회계혁이 실패하다니🙈
    어느 사회나 기득권의 욕심은 끝이 없네요!

  15. 이 정도로 고대 시대면 역사도 왠지 단순할 거 같은데 꽤나 복잡하네요…

    그리고 이런 시대에 별에 대한 이해도가 높은 것도 신기하고…

    고대 시대를 너무 얕잡아 봤나 봅니다. ㅎㅎ

  16. 점성술에 관심이 많았는데, 큰 도움이 되었어요.
    항상 이런 디테일하고 세부적인 정보.. 어떻게 가능하신지!! 대단하십니다!

  17. 세금때문에 가족의 장례식을 못치뤘다는게
    안타깝네요ㅠㅠ 예나지금이나 국가의 역할이
    정말 중요한거 같습니다.
    루갈작기시~ 명칭들이 다 어려워서 발음하시기
    힘드셨을거 같아요ㅋㅋ
    오늘영상 재밌게 보고 갑니다ㅎㅎㅎ

  18. 점성술이 여기서 시작되었군요. 좋은사회를 위한 시민혁명을 이룬 우루카기나에 대해서도 알게되었네여. 7년만에 멸망한게 안타깝네요.

  19. 학교다닐때
    세계사시간의 선새님같으세요
    친구하고삼종셋트살포시두고감니다~~~^^^

  20. 과학 발전으로 점성술은 이젠 재미이자, 미신(?)으로 치부되지만,
    운세를 보는 것을 정말 좋아하는 저는.. 과학적으로 증명되지 않아도,
    마음의 안식을 위해 찾게 되는 것 같아요.ㅋㅋㅋ
    좋은 이야기가 나오면 기분 좋게 더욱 열심히 지내고,
    안좋게 나오는 건 더욱 조심하며 좋은 방향으로 바뀔 수 있게 노력하며.. 그렇게 위안을 삼게 되더라고요.
    그래서 전 새해 운세는 꼭 보는편인데..
    아마 고대인들도 그런 마음이지 않았을까 생각이 들어요 ㅎ

    아.. 근데… 그 시기엔 인권이란 개념도 없었을시기니.. 하물며 동물은 얼마나 더 했을까 싶지만..
    그래도 너무 잔인하긴 하네요 ㅠ 흑…

  21. 지식유튜브 잘배우고 갑니다 광고까지 풀청입니다 행복한 날 되시길 바랍니다

  22. 점성술때문에 아무 죄도 없는 사람들 많이 돌아가셨을 듯 하네요… ㅡㅡ;
    예전에 세계사 시간에 메소포타미아부분이 제일 재미있었는데 또 들어도 재미있네요~~
    세계백과님 채널 항상 번창하시길 바랍니다! ㅎㅎ

  23. 수메르인들의 점성술~~^^정말 멋진데요~~^^
    저도 점을 좋아하긴 하지만~동물의 간은 쫌~~~😱😱 메소포타미아의 역사도 세금 문제는 늘 있었네요~ 사르곤의 탄생도 모세같네요~역시 그 시대 역사는 재미있네요^^😍💕😁

  24. 완전 인디아나존스 생각나에요. 이런 정보 도대체 어디서 수집하셔서 이렇게 잘 만드시는지 박수를!!!

  25. 예나 지금이나 인간은 본성은 ㅠㅠ 잔혹하군요 ㅠ 물론 모든 사람이 다 그렇진 않지만! 재미있는 역사를 통해서 또하나 배워갑니다!

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