Alexander the Great | Wikipedia audio article

Alexander the Great | Wikipedia audio article


Alexander III of Macedon (Greek: Αλέξανδρος
Γ΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as
Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas,
was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne
at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military
campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he created one of the largest empires
of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.
He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history’s most successful
military commanders.During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After
Philip’s assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong
kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and
used this authority to launch his father’s pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in
the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and
began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia,
Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles
of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the
Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic
Sea to the Indus River. He endeavored to reach the “ends of the world
and the Great Outer Sea” and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over
the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the demand of
his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish
as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun
with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his
empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander’s
surviving generals and heirs. Alexander’s legacy includes the cultural diffusion
and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty
cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander’s settlement of Greek
colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic
civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine
Empire in the mid-15th century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and
far eastern Anatolia until the 1920s. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the
mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both
Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared
themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often
ranked among the most influential people in history.==Early life=====Lineage and childhood===Alexander was born on the sixth day of the
ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although
the exact date is disputed, in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon. He was
the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter
of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias
was his principal wife for some time, likely because she gave birth to Alexander. Several legends surround Alexander’s birth
and childhood. According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, on the eve of the consummation
of her marriage to Philip, Olympias dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt
that caused a flame to spread “far and wide” before dying away. Sometime after the wedding,
Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wife’s womb with a seal
engraved with a lion’s image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of these dreams:
that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb; or that
Alexander’s father was Zeus. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias
promulgated the story of Alexander’s divine parentage, variously claiming that she had
told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious.On the day Alexander
was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice.
That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined
Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was
also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders
of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down
because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander. Such legends may have emerged
when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman
and destined for greatness from conception.In his early years, Alexander was raised by a
nurse, Lanike, sister of Alexander’s future general Cleitus the Black. Later in his childhood,
Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by Lysimachus
of Acarnania. Alexander was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning
to read, play the lyre, ride, fight, and hunt.When Alexander was ten years old, a trader from
Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The
horse refused to be mounted, and Philip ordered it away. Alexander however, detecting the
horse’s fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse, which he eventually managed. Plutarch
stated that Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed his son tearfully,
declaring: “My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is
too small for you”, and bought the horse for him. Alexander named it Bucephalas, meaning
“ox-head”. Bucephalas carried Alexander as far as India. When the animal died (because
of old age, according to Plutarch, at age thirty), Alexander named a city after him,
Bucephala.===Education===
When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a tutor, and considered such academics
as Isocrates and Speusippus, the latter offering to resign from his stewardship of the Academy
to take up the post. In the end, Philip chose Aristotle and provided the Temple of the Nymphs
at Mieza as a classroom. In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle’s
hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing
the ex-citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.Mieza was like a boarding
school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and
Cassander. Many of these students would become his friends and future generals, and are often
known as the ‘Companions’. Aristotle taught Alexander and his companions about medicine,
philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art. Under Aristotle’s tutelage, Alexander developed
a passion for the works of Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him an annotated
copy, which Alexander later carried on his campaigns.==Philip’s heir=====Regency and ascent of Macedon===At age 16, Alexander’s education under Aristotle
ended. Philip waged war against Byzantion, leaving Alexander in charge as regent and
heir apparent. During Philip’s absence, the Thracian Maedi revolted against Macedonia.
Alexander responded quickly, driving them from their territory. He colonized it with
Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis.Upon Philip’s return, he dispatched Alexander with
a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. Campaigning against the Greek city
of Perinthus, Alexander is reported to have saved his father’s life. Meanwhile, the city
of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo near Delphi, a sacrilege
that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek affairs. Still occupied
in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army for a campaign in southern Greece.
Concerned that other Greek states might intervene, Alexander made it look as though he was preparing
to attack Illyria instead. During this turmoil, the Illyrians invaded Macedonia, only to be
repelled by Alexander.Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC, and they marched
south through Thermopylae, taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison.
They went on to occupy the city of Elatea, only a few days’ march from both Athens and
Thebes. The Athenians, led by Demosthenes, voted to seek alliance with Thebes against
Macedonia. Both Athens and Philip sent embassies to win Thebes’ favour, but Athens won the
contest. Philip marched on Amphissa (ostensibly acting on the request of the Amphictyonic
League), capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes and accepting the city’s surrender.
Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes,
who both rejected it. As Philip marched south, his opponents blocked
him near Chaeronea, Boeotia. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the
right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip’s trusted generals. According
to the ancient sources, the two sides fought bitterly for some time. Philip deliberately
commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the untested Athenian hoplites to follow,
thus breaking their line. Alexander was the first to break the Theban lines, followed
by Philip’s generals. Having damaged the enemy’s cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to press
forward and quickly routed them. With the Athenians lost, the Thebans were surrounded.
Left to fight alone, they were defeated.After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander
marched unopposed into the Peloponnese, welcomed by all cities; however, when they reached
Sparta, they were refused, but did not resort to war. At Corinth, Philip established a “Hellenic
Alliance” (modelled on the old anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars), which
included most Greek city-states except Sparta. Philip was then named Hegemon (often translated
as “Supreme Commander”) of this league (known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth),
and announced his plans to attack the Persian Empire.===Exile and return===
When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love with and married Cleopatra Eurydice in
338 BC, the niece of his general Attalus. The marriage made Alexander’s position as
heir less secure, since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice would be a fully Macedonian heir,
while Alexander was only half-Macedonian. During the wedding banquet, a drunken Attalus
publicly prayed to the gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir.
At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too
young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the
gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. This so irritated Alexander,
that throwing one of the cups at his head, “You villain,” said he, “what, am I then a
bastard?” Then Philip, taking Attalus’s part, rose up and would have run his son through;
but by good fortune for them both, either his over-hasty rage, or the wine he had drunk,
made his foot slip, so that he fell down on the floor. At which Alexander reproachfully
insulted over him: “See there,” said he, “the man who makes preparations to pass out of
Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from one seat to another.” Alexander fled Macedon with his mother, dropping
her off with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona, capital of the Molossians.
He continued to Illyria, where he sought refuge with the Illyrian king and was treated as
a guest, despite having defeated them in battle a few years before. However, it appears Philip
never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son. Accordingly, Alexander
returned to Macedon after six months due to the efforts of a family friend, Demaratus,
who mediated between the two parties.In the following year, the Persian satrap (governor)
of Caria, Pixodarus, offered his eldest daughter to Alexander’s half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus.
Olympias and several of Alexander’s friends suggested this showed Philip intended to make
Arrhidaeus his heir. Alexander reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth, to
tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughter’s hand to an illegitimate son, but
instead to Alexander. When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded
Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better
bride for him. Philip exiled four of Alexander’s friends, Harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy and Erigyius,
and had the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains.==King of Macedon=====Accession===In summer 336 BC, while at Aegae attending
the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to Olympias’s brother, Alexander I of Epirus, Philip was
assassinated by the captain of his bodyguards, Pausanias. As Pausanias tried to escape, he
tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers, including two of Alexander’s companions,
Perdiccas and Leonnatus. Alexander was proclaimed king on the spot by the nobles and army at
the age of 20.===Consolidation of power===
Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the throne. He had his cousin, the
former Amyntas IV, executed. He also had two Macedonian princes from the region of Lyncestis
killed, but spared a third, Alexander Lyncestes. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa,
her daughter by Philip, burned alive. When Alexander learned about this, he was furious.
Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus, who was in command of the advance guard of
the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatra’s uncle.Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes,
regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. Attalus also had severely insulted
Alexander, and following Cleopatra’s murder, Alexander may have considered him too dangerous
to leave alive. Alexander spared Arrhidaeus, who was by all accounts mentally disabled,
possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias.News of Philip’s death roused many states into
revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes north of Macedon.
When news of the revolts reached Alexander, he responded quickly. Though advised to use
diplomacy, Alexander mustered 3,000 Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly. He
found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between Mount Olympus and Mount Ossa, and
ordered his men to ride over Mount Ossa. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found
Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander’s force.
He then continued south towards the Peloponnese.Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized
as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth. Athens sued for
peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. The famous encounter between Alexander and Diogenes
the Cynic occurred during Alexander’s stay in Corinth. When Alexander asked Diogenes
what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little
to the side, as he was blocking the sunlight. This reply apparently delighted Alexander,
who is reported to have said “But verily, if I were not Alexander, I would like to be
Diogenes.” At Corinth, Alexander took the title of Hegemon (“leader”) and, like Philip,
was appointed commander for the coming war against Persia. He also received news of a
Thracian uprising.===Balkan campaign===Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted
to safeguard his northern borders. In the spring of 335 BC, he advanced to suppress
several revolts. Starting from Amphipolis, he travelled east into the country of the
“Independent Thracians”; and at Mount Haemus, the Macedonian army attacked and defeated
the Thracian forces manning the heights. The Macedonians marched into the country of the
Triballi, and defeated their army near the Lyginus river (a tributary of the Danube).
Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube, encountering the Getae tribe on the
opposite shore. Crossing the river at night, he surprised them and forced their army to
retreat after the first cavalry skirmish.News then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King
of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority.
Marching west into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee
with their troops. With these victories, he secured his northern frontier.While Alexander
campaigned north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again. Alexander immediately
headed south. While the other cities again hesitated, Thebes decided to fight. The Theban
resistance was ineffective, and Alexander razed the city and divided its territory between
the other Boeotian cities. The end of Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily
at peace. Alexander then set out on his Asian campaign, leaving Antipater as regent.===Maps of campaigns=====
Conquest of the Persian Empire=====Asia Minor===Alexander’s army crossed the Hellespont in
334 BC with approximately 48,100 soldiers, 6,100 cavalry and a fleet of 120 ships with
crews numbering 38,000, drawn from Macedon and various Greek city-states, mercenaries,
and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria. He showed his intent
to conquer the entirety of the Persian Empire by throwing a spear into Asian soil and saying
he accepted Asia as a gift from the gods. This also showed Alexander’s eagerness to
fight, in contrast to his father’s preference for diplomacy.After an initial victory against
Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian
provincial capital and treasury of Sardis; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast,
granting autonomy and democracy to the cities. Miletus, held by Achaemenid forces, required
a delicate siege operation, with Persian naval forces nearby. Further south, at Halicarnassus,
in Caria, Alexander successfully waged his first large-scale siege, eventually forcing
his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria,
Orontobates, to withdraw by sea. Alexander left the government of Caria to a member of
the Hecatomnid dynasty, Ada, who adopted Alexander.From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous
Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the
Persians naval bases. From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports and Alexander
moved inland. At Termessos, Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city. At the
ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander “undid” the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot,
a feat said to await the future “king of Asia”. According to the story, Alexander proclaimed
that it did not matter how the knot was undone and hacked it apart with his sword.===The Levant and Syria===In spring 333 BC, Alexander crossed the Taurus
into Cilicia. After a long pause due to an illness, he marched on towards Syria. Though
outmanoeuvered by Darius’ significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he
defeated Darius at Issus. Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and
left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous treasure.
He offered a peace treaty that included the lands he had already lost, and a ransom of
10,000 talents for his family. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was
he alone who decided territorial divisions. Alexander proceeded to take possession of
Syria, and most of the coast of the Levant. In the following year, 332 BC, he was forced
to attack Tyre, which he captured after a long and difficult siege. The men of military
age were massacred and the women and children sold into slavery.===Egypt===When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the
towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated. However, Alexander met with resistance at
Gaza. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege. When
“his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible…
this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the attempt”. After three unsuccessful
assaults, the stronghold fell, but not before Alexander had received a serious shoulder
wound. As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children
were sold into slavery.Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded
as a liberator. He was pronounced son of the deity Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in
the Libyan desert. Henceforth, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father,
and after his death, currency depicted him adorned with the horns of a ram as a symbol
of his divinity. During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would
become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death.===Assyria and Babylonia===Leaving Egypt in 331 BC, Alexander marched
eastward into Mesopotamia (now northern Iraq) and again defeated Darius, at the Battle of
Gaugamela. Darius once more fled the field, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela.
Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two. Darius fled over
the mountains to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), while Alexander captured Babylon.===Persia===From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one
of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury. He sent the bulk of his army to
the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal Road. Alexander himself
took selected troops on the direct route to the city. He then stormed the pass of the
Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains) which had been blocked by a Persian army under
Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury.On
entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days.
Alexander stayed in Persepolis for five months. During his stay a fire broke out in the eastern
palace of Xerxes I and spread to the rest of the city. Possible causes include a drunken
accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second
Persian War by Xerxes. Even as he watched the city burn, Alexander immediately began
to regret his decision. Plutarch claims that he ordered his men to put out the fires, but
that the flames had already spread to most of the city. Curtius claims that Alexander
did not regret his decision until the next morning. Plutarch recounts an anecdote in
which Alexander pauses and talks to a fallen statue of Xerxes as if it were a live person: Shall I pass by and leave you lying there
because of the expeditions you led against Greece, or shall I set you up again because
of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?===Fall of the Empire and the East===Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media,
and then Parthia. The Persian king no longer controlled his own destiny, and was taken
prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman. As Alexander approached, Bessus had
his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius’ successor as Artaxerxes
V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander.
Alexander buried Darius’ remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a regal funeral.
He claimed that, while dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne.
The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have fallen with Darius.Alexander viewed
Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus,
turned into a grand tour of central Asia. Alexander founded a series of new cities,
all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate (“The
Furthest”) in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander through Media, Parthia, Aria
(West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and
Central Afghanistan), and Scythia.Spitamenes, who held an undefined position in the satrapy
of Sogdiana, in 329 BC betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy, one of Alexander’s trusted companions,
and Bessus was executed. However, when, at some point later, Alexander was on the Jaxartes
dealing with an incursion by a horse nomad army, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in revolt.
Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle of Jaxartes and immediately
launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai. After the defeat,
Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace.===Problems and plots===During this time, Alexander adopted some elements
of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis, either
a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their
social superiors. The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of deities and believed
that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him the sympathies of many of
his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it.A plot against his life was revealed, and
one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for failing to alert Alexander. The death
of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion, who had been charged with
guarding the treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated at Alexander’s command, to prevent attempts
at vengeance. Most infamously, Alexander personally killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus,
Cleitus the Black, during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda (modern day Samarkand
in Uzbekistan), in which Cleitus accused Alexander of several judgmental mistakes and most especially,
of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.Later,
in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated
by his own royal pages. His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus, was implicated in
the plot, and in the Anabasis of Alexander, Arrian states that Callisthenes and the pages
were then tortured on the rack as punishment, and likely died soon after. It remains unclear
if Callisthenes was actually involved in the plot, for prior to his accusation he had fallen
out of favour by leading the opposition to the attempt to introduce proskynesis.===Macedon in Alexander’s absence===
When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater, an experienced military
and political leader and part of Philip II’s “Old Guard”, in charge of Macedon. Alexander’s
sacking of Thebes ensured that Greece remained quiet during his absence. The one exception
was a call to arms by Spartan king Agis III in 331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed
in the battle of Megalopolis. Antipater referred the Spartans’ punishment to the League of
Corinth, which then deferred to Alexander, who chose to pardon them. There was also considerable
friction between Antipater and Olympias, and each complained to Alexander about the other.In
general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander’s campaign
in Asia. Alexander sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated the economy
and increased trade across his empire. However, Alexander’s constant demands for troops and
the migration of Macedonians throughout his empire depleted Macedon’s strength, greatly
weakening it in the years after Alexander, and ultimately led to its subjugation by Rome
after the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC).==Indian campaign=====Forays into the Indian subcontinent===After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage
to Roxana (Raoxshna in Old Iranian) to cement relations with his new satrapies, Alexander
turned to the Indian subcontinent. He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara
(a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan), to come to him and
submit to his authority. Omphis (Indian name Ambhi), the ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom
extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes (Jhelum), complied, but the chieftains of some hill
clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas (known in Indian
texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit. Ambhi hastened to relieve
Alexander of his apprehension and met him with valuable presents, placing himself and
all his forces at his disposal. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the
gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of “Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments,
30 horses and 1,000 talents in gold”. Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi
assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at
Hund (Fox 1973), supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself,
and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship
and the most liberal hospitality. On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian
king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5,000 men and took part in the battle of
the Hydaspes River. After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus,
to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life
at the hands of his old enemy. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by
the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the
equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government
of the whole territory between that river and the Indus. A considerable accession of
power was granted him after the death of Philip, son of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain
his authority at the death of Alexander himself (323 BC), as well as in the subsequent partition
of the provinces at Triparadisus, 321 BC. In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander personally
led a campaign against these clans; the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus
valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys. A fierce contest ensued with
the Aspasioi in which Alexander was wounded in the shoulder by a dart, but eventually
the Aspasioi lost. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought in the strongholds of
Massaga, Ora and Aornos.The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting,
in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle. According to Curtius, “Not only
did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings
to rubble.” A similar slaughter followed at Ora. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora,
numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind
and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days.After Aornos, Alexander crossed
the Indus and fought and won an epic battle against King Porus, who ruled a region lying
between the Hydaspes and the Acesines (Chenab), in what is now the Punjab, in the Battle of
the Hydaspes in 326 BC. Alexander was impressed by Porus’ bravery, and made him an ally. He
appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus’ territory land that he did not previously
own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis (Beas). Choosing a local helped him control
these lands so distant from Greece. Alexander founded two cities on opposite sides of the
Hydaspes river, naming one Bucephala, in honour of his horse, who died around this time. The
other was Nicaea (Victory), thought to be located at the site of modern-day Mong, Punjab.===Revolt of the army===East of Porus’ kingdom, near the Ganges River,
was the Nanda Empire of Magadha, and further east, the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal region
of the Indian subcontinent. Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted
by years of campaigning, Alexander’s army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (Beas), refusing
to march farther east. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander’s conquests.
As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed
their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy
who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed
Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as
they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on
the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.
For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty
thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand
war elephants. Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to
march farther, but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return;
the men, he said, “longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland”.
Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. Along the way his
army conquered the Malhi (in modern-day Multan) and other Indian tribes and Alexander sustained
an injury during the siege.Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern
Iran) with general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore
under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult
southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran. Alexander reached Susa in 324
BC, but not before losing many men to the harsh desert.==Last years in Persia==Discovering that many of his satraps and military
governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his
way to Susa. As a gesture of thanks, he paid off the debts of his soldiers, and announced
that he would send over-aged and disabled veterans back to Macedon, led by Craterus.
His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused
to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction
of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units. After three days, unable to persuade his men
to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian
military titles upon Persian units. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander
accepted, and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate
together. In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian
subjects, Alexander held a mass marriage of his senior officers to Persian and other noblewomen
at Susa, but few of those marriages seem to have lasted much beyond a year. Meanwhile,
upon his return to Persia, Alexander learned that guards of the tomb of Cyrus the Great
in Pasargadae had desecrated it, and swiftly executed them. Alexander admired Cyrus the
Great, from an early age reading Xenophon’s Cyropaedia, which described Cyrus’s heroism
in battle and governance as a king and legislator. During his visit to Pasargadae Alexander ordered
his architect Aristobulus to decorate the interior of the sepulchral chamber of Cyrus’
tomb.Afterwards, Alexander travelled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure.
There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion, died of illness or poisoning.
Hephaestion’s death devastated Alexander, and he ordered the preparation of an expensive
funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree for public mourning. Back in Babylon, Alexander
planned a series of new campaigns, beginning with an invasion of Arabia, but he would not
have a chance to realize them, as he died shortly after Hephaestion.==Death and succession==On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander
died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age 32. There are two different
versions of Alexander’s death and details of the death differ slightly in each. Plutarch’s
account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus,
and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa. He developed a fever,
which worsened until he was unable to speak. The common soldiers, anxious about his health,
were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them. In the second account,
Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck with pain after downing a large bowl of unmixed
wine in honour of Heracles, followed by 11 days of weakness; he did not develop a fever
and died after some agony. Arrian also mentioned this as an alternative, but Plutarch specifically
denied this claim.Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination,
foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and
Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Justin stated that Alexander
was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication, while
both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness. The
accounts were nevertheless fairly consistent in designating Antipater, recently removed
as Macedonian viceroy, and at odds with Olympias, as the head of the alleged plot. Perhaps taking
his summons to Babylon as a death sentence, and having seen the fate of Parmenion and
Philotas, Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas,
who was Alexander’s wine-pourer. There was even a suggestion that Aristotle may have
participated.The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve
days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were
probably not available. However, in a 2003 BBC documentary investigating the death of
Alexander, Leo Schep from the New Zealand National Poisons Centre proposed that the
plant white hellebore (Veratrum album), which was known in antiquity, may have been used
to poison Alexander. In a 2014 manuscript in the journal Clinical Toxicology, Schep
suggested Alexander’s wine was spiked with Veratrum album, and that this would produce
poisoning symptoms that match the course of events described in the Alexander Romance.
Veratrum album poisoning can have a prolonged course and it was suggested that if Alexander
was poisoned, Veratrum album offers the most plausible cause. Another poisoning explanation
put forward in 2010 proposed that the circumstances of his death were compatible with poisoning
by water of the river Styx (modern-day Mavroneri in Arcadia, Greece) that contained calicheamicin,
a dangerous compound produced by bacteria.Several natural causes (diseases) have been suggested,
including malaria and typhoid fever. A 1998 article in the New England Journal of Medicine
attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.
Another recent analysis suggested pyogenic (infectious) spondylitis or meningitis. Other
illnesses fit the symptoms, including acute pancreatitis and West Nile virus. Natural-cause
theories also tend to emphasize that Alexander’s health may have been in general decline after
years of heavy drinking and severe wounds. The anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion’s
death may also have contributed to his declining health.===After death===Alexander’s body was laid in a gold anthropoid
sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket. According
to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was laid to
rest “would be happy and unvanquishable forever”. Perhaps more likely, the successors may have
seen possession of the body as a symbol of legitimacy, since burying the prior king was
a royal prerogative.While Alexander’s funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy
seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis. His successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, transferred
the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where it remained until at least late Antiquity. Ptolemy IX
Lathyros, one of Ptolemy’s final successors, replaced Alexander’s sarcophagus with a glass
one so he could convert the original to coinage. The recent discovery of an enormous tomb in
northern Greece, at Amphipolis, dating from the time of Alexander the Great has given
rise to speculation that its original intent was to be the burial place of Alexander. This
would fit with the intended destination of Alexander’s funeral cortege.
Pompey, Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly,
accidentally knocked the nose off. Caligula was said to have taken Alexander’s breastplate
from the tomb for his own use. Around AD 200, Emperor Septimius Severus closed Alexander’s
tomb to the public. His son and successor, Caracalla, a great admirer, visited the tomb
during his own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy.The so-called
“Alexander Sarcophagus”, discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum,
is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander’s remains, but because
its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting. It was
originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of
Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the battle of Issus in 331. However, more
recently, it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than Abdalonymus’ death.===Division of the empire===Alexander’s death was so sudden that when
reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. Alexander had
no obvious or legitimate heir, his son Alexander IV by Roxane being born after Alexander’s
death. According to Diodorus, Alexander’s companions asked him on his deathbed to whom
he bequeathed his kingdom; his laconic reply was “tôi kratistôi”—”to the strongest”.
Another theory is that his successors willfully or erroneously misheard “tôi Kraterôi”—”to
Craterus”, the general leading his Macedonian troops home and newly entrusted with the regency
of Macedonia.Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point, implying
that this was an apocryphal story. Diodorus, Curtius and Justin offered the more plausible
story that Alexander passed his signet ring to Perdiccas, a bodyguard and leader of the
companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby nominating him.Perdiccas initially
did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane’s baby would be king, if male; with
himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. However, the infantry, under
the command of Meleager, rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion.
Instead, they supported Alexander’s half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides
reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint
kings, albeit in name only.Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however.
The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each
general used to bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed,
and 40 years of war between “The Successors” (Diadochi) ensued before the Hellenistic world
settled into four stable power blocs: Ptolemaic Egypt, Seleucid Mesopotamia and Central Asia,
Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon. In the process, both Alexander IV and Philip
III were murdered.===Will===Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed
written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Craterus started to carry
out Alexander’s commands, but the successors chose not to further implement them, on the
grounds they were impractical and extravagant. Nevertheless, Perdiccas read Alexander’s will
to his troops.Alexander’s will called for military expansion into the southern and western
Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.
It included: Construction of a monumental tomb for his
father Philip, “to match the greatest of the pyramids of Egypt”
Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Dium, Amphipolis, and a monumental
temple to Athena at Troy Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean
Basin Circumnavigation of Africa
Development of cities and the “transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in
the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to
common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties.”==
Character=====
Generalship===Alexander earned the epithet “the Great” due
to his unparalleled success as a military commander. He never lost a battle, despite
typically being outnumbered. This was due to use of terrain, phalanx and cavalry tactics,
bold strategy, and the fierce loyalty of his troops. The Macedonian phalanx, armed with
the sarissa, a spear 6 metres (20 ft) long, had been developed and perfected by Philip
II through rigorous training, and Alexander used its speed and maneuverability to great
effect against larger but more disparate Persian forces. Alexander also recognized the potential
for disunity among his diverse army, which employed various languages and weapons. He
overcame this by being personally involved in battle, in the manner of a Macedonian king.In
his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small part of his forces, perhaps
13,000 infantry with 5,000 cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40,000. Alexander
placed the phalanx at the center and cavalry and archers on the wings, so that his line
matched the length of the Persian cavalry line, about 3 km (1.86 mi). By contrast, the
Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry. This ensured that Alexander would
not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage
over the Persians’ scimitars and javelins. Macedonian losses were negligible compared
to those of the Persians.At Issus in 333 BC, his first confrontation with Darius, he used
the same deployment, and again the central phalanx pushed through. Alexander personally
led the charge in the center, routing the opposing army. At the decisive encounter with
Darius at Gaugamela, Darius equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to break up the
phalanx and equipped his cavalry with pikes. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with
the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming.
The advance was successful and broke Darius’ center, causing the latter to flee once again.When
faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India,
Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents’ style. Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana, Alexander
successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements,
while massing his cavalry at the center. In India, confronted by Porus’ elephant corps,
the Macedonians opened their ranks to envelop the elephants and used their sarissas to strike
upwards and dislodge the elephants’ handlers.===Physical appearance===Greek biographer Plutarch (c.  45 – c. 120
AD) describes Alexander’s appearance as: The outward appearance of Alexander is best
represented by the statues of him which Lysippus made, and it was by this artist alone that
Alexander himself thought it fit that he should be modelled. For those peculiarities which
many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the poise of the
neck, which was bent slightly to the left, and the melting glance of his eyes, this artist
has accurately observed. Apelles, however, in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt,
did not reproduce his complexion, but made it too dark and swarthy. Whereas he was of
a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly,
and in his face. Moreover, that a very pleasant odour exhaled from his skin and that there
was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh, so that his garments were filled with
it, this we have read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus. Greek historian Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus
‘Xenophon’ c.  86 – c. 160 AD) described Alexander as: [T]he strong, handsome commander with one
eye dark as the night and one blue as the sky.
The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia
iridum: that one eye was dark and the other light.British historian Peter Green provided
a description of Alexander’s appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient
documents: Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing.
Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough. His beard was scanty,
and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His neck was
in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes (one
blue, one brown) revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh
voice. Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was
so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors
from crafting his image. Lysippos had often used the contrapposto sculptural scheme to
portray Alexander and other characters such as Apoxyomenos, Hermes and Eros. Lysippos’
sculpture, famous for its naturalism, as opposed to a stiffer, more static pose, is thought
to be the most faithful depiction.===Personality===Some of Alexander’s strongest personality
traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged
him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire. Olympias’ influence instilled
a sense of destiny in him, and Plutarch tells how his ambition “kept his spirit serious
and lofty in advance of his years”. However, his father Philip was Alexander’s most immediate
and influential role model, as the young Alexander watched him campaign practically every year,
winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds. Alexander’s relationship with
his father forged the competitive side of his personality; he had a need to out-do his
father, illustrated by his reckless behaviour in battle. While Alexander worried that his
father would leave him “no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world”,
he also downplayed his father’s achievements to his companions.According to Plutarch, among
Alexander’s traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, which undoubtedly
contributed to some of his decisions. Although Alexander was stubborn and did not respond
well to orders from his father, he was open to reasoned debate. He had a calmer side—perceptive,
logical, and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and
was an avid reader. This was no doubt in part due to Aristotle’s tutelage; Alexander was
intelligent and quick to learn. His intelligent and rational side was amply demonstrated by
his ability and success as a general. He had great self-restraint in “pleasures of the
body”, in contrast with his lack of self-control with alcohol.Alexander was erudite and patronized
both arts and sciences. However, he had little interest in sports or the Olympic games (unlike
his father), seeking only the Homeric ideals of honour (timê) and glory (kudos). He had
great charisma and force of personality, characteristics which made him a great leader. His unique
abilities were further demonstrated by the inability of any of his generals to unite
Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death—only Alexander had the ability to
do so.During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander
began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. His extraordinary achievements,
coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions, may have
combined to produce this effect. His delusions of grandeur are readily visible in his will
and in his desire to conquer the world, in as much as he is by various sources described
as having boundless ambition, an epithet, the meaning of which has descended into an
historical cliché.He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify
himself. Olympias always insisted to him that he was the son of Zeus, a theory apparently
confirmed to him by the oracle of Amun at Siwa. He began to identify himself as the
son of Zeus-Ammon. Alexander adopted elements of Persian dress and customs at court, notably
proskynesis, a practice of which Macedonians disapproved, and were loath to perform. This
behaviour cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen. However, Alexander also
was a pragmatic ruler who understood the difficulties of ruling culturally disparate peoples, many
of whom lived in kingdoms where the king was divine. Thus, rather than megalomania, his
behaviour may simply have been a practical attempt at strengthening his rule and keeping
his empire together.===Personal relationships===Alexander married three times: Roxana, daughter
of the Sogdian nobleman Oxyartes of Bactria, out of love; and the Persian princesses Stateira
II and Parysatis II, the former a daughter of Darius III and latter a daughter of Artaxerxes
III, for political reasons. He apparently had two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon by Roxana
and, possibly, Heracles of Macedon from his mistress Barsine. He lost another child when
Roxana miscarried at Babylon.Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend,
general, and bodyguard Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble. Hephaestion’s death
devastated Alexander. This event may have contributed to Alexander’s failing health
and detached mental state during his final months.Alexander’s sexuality has been the
subject of speculation and controversy. No ancient sources stated that Alexander had
homosexual relationships, or that Alexander’s relationship with Hephaestion was sexual.
Aelian, however, writes of Alexander’s visit to Troy where “Alexander garlanded the tomb
of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus, the latter hinting that he was a beloved of
Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.” Noting that the word eromenos
(ancient Greek for beloved) does not necessarily bear sexual meaning. Alexander may have been
bisexual, in keeping with Greek upper class custom.Green argues that there is little evidence
in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce
an heir until the very end of his life. However, he was relatively young when he died, and
Ogden suggests that Alexander’s matrimonial record is more impressive than his father’s
at the same age. Apart from wives, Alexander had many more female companions. Alexander
accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly, showing
great self-control in “pleasures of the body”. Nevertheless, Plutarch described how Alexander
was infatuated by Roxana while complimenting him on not forcing himself on her. Green suggested
that, in the context of the period, Alexander formed quite strong friendships with women,
including Ada of Caria, who adopted him, and even Darius’ mother Sisygambis, who supposedly
died from grief upon hearing of Alexander’s death.==Battle record====Legacy==Alexander’s legacy extended beyond his military
conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West,
and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.
Some of the cities he founded became major cultural centers, many surviving into the
21st century. His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which
he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the
Mediterranean.===Hellenistic kingdoms===Alexander’s most immediate legacy was the
introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. At the time of his death,
Alexander’s empire covered some 5,200,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi), and was the largest
state of its time. Many of these areas remained in Macedonian hands or under Greek influence
for the next 200–300 years. The successor states that emerged were, at least initially,
dominant forces, and these 300 years are often referred to as the Hellenistic period.The
eastern borders of Alexander’s empire began to collapse even during his lifetime. However,
the power vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent directly gave rise
to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in history, the Maurya Empire. Taking advantage
of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in Greek sources as “Sandrokottos”),
of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and with that power base proceeded
to conquer the Nanda Empire.===Founding of cities===Over the course of his conquests, Alexander
founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most of them east of the Tigris. The first,
and greatest, was Alexandria in Egypt, which would become one of the leading Mediterranean
cities. The cities’ locations reflected trade routes as well as defensive positions. At
first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons. Following
Alexander’s death, many Greeks who had settled there tried to return to Greece. However,
a century or so after Alexander’s death, many of the Alexandrias were thriving, with elaborate
public buildings and substantial populations that included both Greek and local peoples.===Funding of temples===In 334 BC, Alexander the Great donated funds
for the completion of the new temple of Athena Polias in Priene. An inscription from the
temple, now housed in the British Museum, declares: “King Alexander dedicated [this
temple] to Athena Polias.” This inscription is one of the few independent archaeological
discoveries confirming an episode from Alexander’s life. The temple was designed by Pytheos,
one of the architects of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.===Hellenization===Hellenization was coined by the German historian
Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population
into the former Persian empire after Alexander’s conquest. That this export took place is undoubted,
and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of, for instance, Alexandria, Antioch and
Seleucia (south of modern Baghdad). Alexander sought to insert Greek elements into Persian
culture and attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture. This culminated in his aspiration
to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly
rejected such policies. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied
by a distinct and opposite ‘Orientalization’ of the successor states.The core of the Hellenistic
culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian. The close association of men from
across Greece in Alexander’s army directly led to the emergence of the largely Attic-based
“koine”, or “common” Greek dialect. Koine spread throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming
the lingua franca of Hellenistic lands and eventually the ancestor of modern Greek. Furthermore,
town planning, education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period
were all based on Classical Greek ideals, evolving into distinct new forms commonly
grouped as Hellenistic. Aspects of Hellenistic culture were still evident in the traditions
of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century. Some of the most pronounced effects of Hellenization
can be seen in Afghanistan and India, in the region of the relatively late-rising Greco-Bactrian
Kingdom (250–125 BC) (in modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan) and the Indo-Greek
Kingdom (180 BC – 10 AD) in modern Afghanistan and India. There on the newly formed Silk
Road Greek culture apparently hybridized with Indian, and especially Buddhist culture. The
resulting syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism heavily influenced the development of Buddhism
and created a culture of Greco-Buddhist art. These Greco-Buddhist kingdoms sent some of
the first Buddhist missionaries to China, Sri Lanka, and the Mediterranean (Greco-Buddhist
monasticism). Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared
at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style. Several
Buddhist traditions may have been influenced by the ancient Greek religion: the concept
of Boddhisatvas is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes, and some Mahayana ceremonial practices
(burning incense, gifts of flowers, and food placed on altars) are similar to those practiced
by the ancient Greeks; however, similar practices were also observed amongst the native Indic
culture. One Greek king, Menander I, probably became Buddhist, and was immortalized in Buddhist
literature as ‘Milinda’. The process of Hellenization also spurred trade between the east and west.
For example, Greek astronomical instruments dating to the 3rd century BC were found in
the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in modern-day Afghanistan, while the Greek concept of a
spherical earth surrounded by the spheres of planets eventually supplanted the long-standing
Indian cosmological belief of a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central
mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower. The Yavanajataka (lit. Greek astronomical
treatise) and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas
on Indian astronomy. Following the conquests of Alexander the Great
in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging. In the area of architecture,
a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple
near Taxila. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as
far as Patna, especially with the Pataliputra capital, dated to the 3rd century BC. The
Corinthian order is also heavily represented in the art of Gandhara, especially through
Indo-Corinthian capitals.===Influence on Rome===Alexander and his exploits were admired by
many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.
Polybius began his Histories by reminding Romans of Alexander’s achievements, and thereafter
Roman leaders saw him as a role model. Pompey the Great adopted the epithet “Magnus” and
even Alexander’s anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for
Alexander’s 260-year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness. Julius Caesar
dedicated a Lysippean equestrian bronze statue but replaced Alexander’s head with his own,
while Octavian visited Alexander’s tomb in Alexandria and temporarily changed his seal
from a sphinx to Alexander’s profile. The emperor Trajan also admired Alexander, as
did Nero and Caracalla. The Macriani, a Roman family that in the person of Macrinus briefly
ascended to the imperial throne, kept images of Alexander on their persons, either on jewelry,
or embroidered into their clothes. On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly
Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept
in check by republican values. Alexander was used by these writers as an example of ruler
values such as amicita (friendship) and clementia (clemency), but also iracundia (anger) and
cupiditas gloriae (over-desire for glory).===Legend===Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander
the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.
His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him
in proskynesis. Writing shortly after Alexander’s death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented
a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons. When Onesicritus
read this passage to his patron, Alexander’s general and later King Lysimachus reportedly
quipped, “I wonder where I was at the time.”In the first centuries after Alexander’s death,
probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known
as the Alexander Romance, later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes.
This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle
Ages, containing many dubious stories, and was translated into numerous languages.===In ancient and modern culture===Alexander the Great’s accomplishments and
legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has figured in both high and popular
culture beginning in his own era to the present day. The Alexander Romance, in particular,
has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian
to medieval European to modern Greek.Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore,
more so than any other ancient figure. The colloquial form of his name in modern Greek
(“O Megalexandros”) is a household name, and he is the only ancient hero to appear in the
Karagiozis shadow play. One well-known fable among Greek seamen involves a solitary mermaid
who would grasp a ship’s prow during a storm and ask the captain “Is King Alexander alive?”
The correct answer is “He is alive and well and rules the world!” causing the mermaid
to vanish and the sea to calm. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging
Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.In pre-Islamic
Middle Persian (Zoroastrian) literature, Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak, meaning
“accursed”, and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.
In Sunni Islamic Persia, under the influence of the Alexander Romance (in Persian: اسکندرنامه‎
Iskandarnamah), a more positive portrayal of Alexander emerges. Firdausi’s Shahnameh
(“The Book of Kings”) includes Alexander in a line of legitimate Persian shahs, a mythical
figure who explored the far reaches of the world in search of the Fountain of Youth.
Later Persian writers associate him with philosophy, portraying him at a symposium with figures
such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, in search of immortality.
The figure of Dhul-Qarnayn (literally “the Two-Horned One”) mentioned in the Quran is
believed by some scholars to represent Alexander, due to parallels with the Alexander Romance.
In this tradition, he was a heroic figure who built a wall to defend against the nations
of Gog and Magog. He then travelled the known world in search of the Water of Life and Immortality,
eventually becoming a prophet.The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays him as an
ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to “the one true God”. In Egypt, Alexander
was portrayed as the son of Nectanebo II, the last pharaoh before the Persian conquest.
His defeat of Darius was depicted as Egypt’s salvation, “proving” Egypt was still ruled
by an Egyptian.According to Josephus, Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel when he entered
Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.
This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem.In Hindi and Urdu, the name “Sikandar”, derived
from Persian, denotes a rising young talent. In medieval Europe, Alexander the Great was
revered as a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes whose lives were believed
to encapsulate all the ideal qualities of chivalry.Irish playwright Aubrey Thomas de
Vere wrote Alexander the Great, a Dramatic Poem.==Historiography==Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments,
texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from
men who served with Alexander were all lost. Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life
included Alexander’s campaign historian Callisthenes; Alexander’s generals Ptolemy and Nearchus;
Aristobulus, a junior officer on the campaigns; and Onesicritus, Alexander’s chief helmsman.
Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. The
earliest of these is Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC), followed by Quintus Curtius Rufus
(mid-to-late 1st century AD), Arrian (1st to 2nd century AD), the biographer Plutarch
(1st to 2nd century AD), and finally Justin, whose work dated as late as the 4th century.
Of these, Arrian is generally considered the most reliable, given that he used Ptolemy
and Aristobulus as his sources, closely followed by Diodorus.==Ancestry====See also==Alexander the Great in the Qur’an
Ancient Macedonian army Bucephalus
Chronology of European exploration of Asia Diogenes and Alexander
Ptolemaic cult of Alexander the Great List of people known as The Great==Annotations====References====
Sources====Further reading====External links==Alexander the Great (king of Macedonia) at
Encyclopædia Britannica Delamarche, Félix (1833), The Empire and
Expeditions of Alexander the Great. Romm, James; Cartledge, Paul, “Two Great Historians
On Alexander the Great”, Forbes (conversations) Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part
6. Alexander the Great at Curlie
Alexander the Great: An annotated list of primary sources, Livius.
The Elusive Tomb of Alexander the Great, Archæology. Alexander the Great and Sherlock Holmes, Sherlockian
Sherlock. In Our Time: Alexander the Great BBC discussion
with Paul Cartledge, Diana Spencer and Rachel Mairs hosted by Melvyn Bragg, first broadcast
1 October 2015.

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