Archbishop

Archbishop


In many denominations of the Christian religion,
an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank. Like popes, patriarchs, metropolitans, cardinal
bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, etc., archbishops belong to the category of
bishops, the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops, priests, and deacons. One becomes an archbishop by being granted
the title or by ordination as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or of another episcopal
see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Western Christianity
Metropolitan archbishops Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups
in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and duties
of oversight over the other sees. He is known as the metropolitan archbishop
of that see. In the Roman Catholic Church, canon 436 of
the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Rite metropolitan
archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Church are indicated
in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. Non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees
As well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that
have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the only one
in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses
so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for
historical reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans
of a metropolitan archdiocese. An example is the Archdiocese of Avignon,
which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Others are immediately subject
to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese. These are usually “aggregated” to an ecclesiastical
province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in
Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but
not part of it. The ordinary of such an archdiocese is an
archbishop, however, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops’ dioceses are
called archdioceses. Coadjutor archbishops Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who
has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or
resignation of the incumbent, was assigned also to a titular see, which he held until
the moment of succession. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop
of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate. Archbishops ad personam
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see
that they head but because it has been granted to them personally. Such a grant can be given when someone who
already holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance
may be greater than the person’s former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is then known as the
Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed
Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009. The title borne by the successor of such an
archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he also is granted the
personal title of Archbishop. Titular archiepiscopal sees
The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists
for titular sees as well as for residential ones. The Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees
of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios
and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not
of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to
such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop
of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. Archbishops emeriti
If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of
retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word “emeritus” is
added to his former title, and he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see. Until 1970, such archbishops were transferred
to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of
the same see: the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of
Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular
see: an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred
to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops
formally revert to being addressed as “bishop” and styled “The Right Reverend”, although
they may be appointed “archbishop emeritus” by their province on retirement, in which
case they retain the title “archbishop” and the style “The Most Reverend”, as a right. Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example,
as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the
status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as “archbishop” as a
courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric in which case the courtesy
ceases. Privileges of archbishops While there is no difference between the official
dress of archbishops, as such, and that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan
archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but
only within the province over which they have oversight. In Roman Catholic heraldry, an archbishop
has an ecclesiastical hat with ten tassels on each side of his coat of arms, while a
bishop has only six. The archiepiscopal cross behind the shield
has two bars instead of one. Such a cross may be borne before him in liturgical
processions. In processions and other occasions for strict
protocol, archbishops precede simple bishops. In the Anglican Communion, archbishops are
styled “The Most Reverend” and addressed as “Your Grace”, while bishops are styled “The
Right Reverend” and addressed as “My Lord” or “Your Lordship”. Anglican archbishops are entitled to be preceded
by a server carrying an archiepiscopal processional cross in liturgical processions. The Archbishop of Canterbury’s metropolitical
processional cross is always carried before him by a priest-chaplain, and is a two-barred
processional cross. However, the Archbishop of Canterbury is also
entitled to be preceded by the ancient primatial cross of Canterbury which is of an ornate
historical design, made of precious metal, and with precious stones inserted, but unlike
his metropolitical cross it is not double-barred. Eastern Christianity In the Eastern Orthodox Church of Greek tradition,
the title of Archbishop usually indicates some form of leadership of the other bishops
of the local church, as in the Church of Greece and the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. In the Russian Orthodox tradition, metropolitans
outrank archbishops. The Oriental Orthodox custom generally agrees
with the Slavic rather than the Greek with respect to the archbishop/metropolitan distinction. Instead of the term “archbishop”, Eastern
Catholic Churches sometimes use the word “archeparch” by analogy with “eparch”, the term used for
a diocesan bishop. However, the word “archeparch” is not found
in the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. See also Apostolic succession
Archbishop of Athens Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Uppsala Bishop
Catholic Church hierarchy Lists of patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops
Major archbishop Structure of the Church of England
References

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