Are We The First Advanced Civilization in The Solar System?

Are We The First Advanced Civilization in The Solar System?

Humans are believed to be the most technologically
advanced civilization that’s ever set foot on Earth, or really anywhere in the Solar
System. But are we the first? Could there have been an advanced civilization
that walked the Earth millions or even billions of years ago, and then died out long ago,
their technology and structures lost to the eons. And how could we know? In the last 100,000 years or so, modern humans
like you and me evolved here on Earth from our ancestors. We started out in Africa, but then over thousands
of years, we migrated to every corner of the planet. Our impact on this world is clearly visible. You can can see it in the air, across the
land, the oceans, and even out in space. Humanity is a technological civilization,
and we’re bending this planet to our will. If an alien was dropped down in the middle
of a modern human city, it would be immediately obvious. But even in the most remote places on Earth,
the right scientific instruments would show our impact on the water and atmosphere of
our planet. But if humanity suddenly disappeared from
Earth, our planet would reclaim it. Plants and animals would recolonize our spaces. The Sun, wind and rain would weather down
our buildings and monuments. The natural cycles of the planet would clear
out the evidence that we were ever here. Eventually, plate tectonics itself would drag
evidence of human existence down into the mantle, destroying it forever. Fast forward a few hundred million or billion
years into the future and it would be almost impossible to know humans were ever here. Which makes us wonder, could we know if we’re
actually the first advanced civilization to live here on Earth? If another civilization came before us, how
could we find them? This is a question that Dr. Jason Wright,
an exoplanet researcher and associate professor at PennState University posed in his 2017
paper titled: Prior Indigenous Technological Species. The paper is all about where we might find
evidence for previous advanced civilizations here in the Solar System, and what might have
happened to them. Before I get started, let me be clear. Don’t get your hopes up. There isn’t a single piece of evidence anywhere,
at all, that there was ever another civilization. But we’ve only scratched the surface of
exploring our Solar System. In fact, we’ve barely even explored our
own planet. And conditions could have been different in
the past. The probes and rovers exploring other worlds
in the Solar System have told us that the conditions we see today is just a phase the
planets are going through. Billions of years ago, the Sun was cooler,
Venus was probably less terrible, Mars was warmer and wetter, and more places in the
Solar System could have been habitable. Perhaps an ancient civilization could have
survived on one of those worlds, or even the early Earth, and then became a spacefaring
species, spreading to other worlds in the Solar System. In order to search for those ancient civilizations,
consider what kinds of impact humans are leaving on the Earth. That’ll be the first place to search, since
it’s easiest to get to. But Earth is active and the surface is under
constant weathering. Open pit mines, where intelligent species
dug out valuable minerals would have filled in, or been weathered away. Radioactive isotopes from ancient nuclear
reactors might be visible for hundreds of thousands or millions of years, but eventually
they’d decay. And over the longest timescales, the Earth’s
shifting plate tectonics would obscure almost any sign. But the Earth also keeps a history of its
atmosphere and water in the geologic record. The pollution from an advanced civilization
could be stored in those layers of sediment over vast periods of time. According to Gavin Schmidt and Adam Frank
in their new paper called “The Silurian Hypothesis”, which yes, is named after the
lizard-like Silurians from Doctor Who, there could be signals in the geologic record. They explain how little we actually know about
the ancient Earth. The oldest part of the Earth’s surface is
the Negev Desert in southern Israel, which is only 1.8 million years old. There are older surfaces from mining or exposure
and uplift, but you have to go looking for it. There’s no part of the ocean floor older
than 170 million years old. Since only a fraction of living creatures
that have ever existed would show up in the fossil record, Schmidt and Frank say that
any civilizations that didn’t last longer than about 4 million years wouldn’t show
up in the fossil record for more than a blip. You’d mostly likely miss it. But what about the chemicals humans have been
putting into the air? Humans have released 500 billion tons of carbon
into the atmosphere over the last couple of centuries, and that’s adding a layer to
the geologic record that could be detectable for millions or even billions of years into
the future. And not just carbon, we’re also emitting
trace elements like lead, chromium and even gold, which will be more concentrated than
what you’d randomly detect if it all formed naturally on Earth. Humans have even changed the fossil record
itself, increasing the number of species that hang out with us, like mice and rats, and
killing off the mega fauna. That might be detectable as well. In other words, if future civilizations looked
carefully, there would be evidence of humanity’s presence, long after all the other evidence
had weathered away. Perhaps if we look carefully, we’ll eventually
find evidence of an ancient civilization that was destroyed eons ago. But what if they knew they wouldn’t be around
forever and wanted to leave some kind of record of their existence? We’ll get to that in a second, but first
I’d like to thank: Mark Steven
Michael Halada Tim Rumph (Rump)
Tanglebones Clint Branham
Meris Williams And the rest of our 829 patrons for their
generous support. If you love what we’re doing and want to
get in on the action, head over to Let’s say that an ancient civilization knew
that they weren’t long for this Solar System, and wanted to leave some kind of evidence
for us to find, to know that they were here long ago. What should we be looking for? What if a civilization wanted to be remembered? Jason Wright says that other places in the
Solar System would be better preserved. There’s no wind or water erosion on the
Moon, just the radiation from the Sun and the constant stream of micrometeorite impacts
that churn up the surface. Mars has more weathering, but still, there
are features largely unchanged over vast periods of time. An ancient factory could get covered in dust
or worn down by erosion and look like a rocky outcrop. The best evidence is probably underground,
safely protected from the ongoing surface erosion. But we’d need orbiters or rovers with ground
penetrating radar to peer beneath the surface. For example, NASA’s Europa Clipper is going
to be equipped with an ice-penetrating radar instrument that should be able to peer kilometers
beneath the thick ice on the Jovian moon. There could even been free floating objects
in the Solar System like ancient space stations. They’d have been abandoned long ago, and
they probably wouldn’t work any more. The micrometeorites and solar radiation would
be working hard to wear them down. But we see comets and asteroids which are
relics from the early Solar System, largely untouched over billions of years. The Golden Records on board the Voyager spacecraft
were designed to last at least a billion years, long enough for the spacecraft to cross almost
the entire Milky Way at their current speed. What if an advanced civilization purposefully
gathered their knowledge and evidence of their existence and put it out into space where
we could find it. Although this sounds like a pretty crazy idea,
in fact, humans are working on something like this right now. There’s a group called the Arch Mission
Foundation, and they want to archive the knowledge of humanity and store it on the Moon. If all goes well, a rocket launched to the
Moon in 2020 will be carrying an Astrobiotic Peregrene lunar lander. It’ll be carrying the entire contents of
Wikipedia, as well as a compilation of human languages, and other content embedded into
a microfiche that you could read if you had a 1,000x magnification microscope. Once the lander settles down on the Moon,
it’ll be safe and sound for billions of years, for any future civilizations to learn
about our history. I know, I know, you’re wondering what would
happen if it gets hit by a stray meteor. That’s why the Arch Mission Foundation would
like to build more and spread them across the Solar System, to preserve the legacy of
humany for our future robotic overlords to enjoy. If they’re there, why haven’t we found
them? In their 2012 paper titled “On the likelihood
of non-terrestrial artifacts in the Solar System”, Jacob Haqq-Misra and Ravi Kumar
Kopparapu calculate how difficult it would be to find artificial objects in the Solar
System. Space is big, and it’s hard to find things
unless you know exactly where to look. If there was a 1-10 meter space probe out
there in the Solar System containing the total knowledge of an advanced ancient civilization,
there’s almost no chance we’d find it with the state of our current exploration. Maybe something on the Moon or Mars would
turn up, but imagine if they put it in a nice stable Lagrange point or out at the Kuiper
Belt to minimize the damage from solar radiation and asteroid impacts. Clearly, we need to explore more of the Solar
System. You know what would look better than a lander,
though? A monolith. Imagine if we put these across all the worlds
in the Solar System, with instructions about which worlds are yours, except Europa. Just saying. Are we the first advanced civilization here
in the Solar System? Probably. We haven’t found any others. But there are places we can look and techniques
we can use to find anyone who was here before us. So what do you think? Are we the first advanced civilization in
the Solar System? What kind of monuments would you build to
let future civilizations know we were here? Let me know your thoughts in the comments. Once a week I gather up all my space news
into a single email newsletter and send it out. It’s got pictures, brief highlights about
the story, and links so you can find out more. Go to to sign
up. And finally, here’s a playlist.

100 thoughts on “Are We The First Advanced Civilization in The Solar System?

  1. Ice core samples will show the unmistakable evidence of our existence. There is plenty of hard evidence that no advanced civilization ever existed, at least none that influenced it's air environment, in last 800,000 years.

  2. Future civilizations will ask….. "What is "Coke, Pepsi, Gatorade, Clorox, Tide, Tupperware on these strange containers floating on this world's Oceans?"
    Explorer Species – "Were they more intelligent as We are?"

  3. What kind of monument would YOU, Mr. Cain, need to beleive it was left by an ancient technologically advanced civilization here on earth?

  4. thank you for covering this sad issue, one day we may be gone too, why not prepare our monument with all our info for aliens a billion years in the future to find

  5. Evolutionary record of life is pretty well attested. How come we can find signs of single celled organisms billions of years ago, but no sign of any mythical early civilizations? That we can say when multicellullar life first emerged, animals appeared on land, oil formed, mammals, birds, etc appeared, and that it all fit rather nicely? Is there any unexplained gap where an advanced civilization would fit?

    And Fermi paradox points to us being the first advanced race in at least our galaxy, if not further around.

  6. does water from an asteroid that’s not from our solar system have the same affect on humans if we drink it?.is water the same water every where?would humans need water from earth to survive in deep space or does any water from outer space do the same thing?

  7. you didnt even mention the pyramid a eartquake proof rock building with meausurements that show math and atronamy how could not at least bring up ???

  8. Let's say we all died out tomorrow, fast forward millions of years to the future, would it be obvious that we were here? Yes, it absolutely would be obvious, it would stay obvious until Sun goes red giant and devours Earth and everything in orbit around here. There are no signs of previous technologically advanced civilizations ergo there were none. We can find and recognize stone axes of early hominids, way before homo sapiens entered the scene and there is no way to label them "advanced civilisation". We can trace evolution back before anything even crawled out of the ocean. Life leaves a lasting mark wherever it exists, there is not even a remotest chance that we might have missed an entire technologically advanced civilisation.

  9. A beacon on top of Olympus Mons, Everest, and every other highest peak on objects in the Solar System powered by some long lasting renewable energy source.

  10. If a ancient intelligent civilisation were to leave evidence that they existed they wouldn't leave it on the planet. Personally I believe there was one that had space flight probably limited to the solar system.They got wiped out after the earth suffered a catastrophic disaster making it uninhabitable for a period. whatever space program that they had was not self sufficient and was dependant on mother earth and ultimately those off world perished aswell. I see humanity doing the exact same thing, we'd get so far but not quick enough before the earth gets hit by natures perfect steriliser.

  11. If you want to consider humanity's carbon layer and mass extinction record as being a bit of a "neon sign" to any future species, perhaps we need to think a bit harder about the KT Event: a major mass extinction event coupled with a very noticeable iridium layer. Yes, that's the premise of a SF novel (The Toolmaker Koan, by John McLoughlin), and there is a more sensible explanation for it… Still. Worth thinking about.

  12. Any hypothesis has to start out with a null value (there has been no other intelligence) and gather objective evidence.

    Time is also a factor as well as intelligence not really offering any advantage in evolutionary biology. The popular misconception is that evolution has a purpose other than propagation of genes, it does not.

  13. We aren't from Africa, the DNA research we've conducted conclusively excludes that possibility. Most likely but not certain area thought to be the origin is infact Australia.

  14. In Islamic lore (culture), we believe there were 3 advance civilization that lived before human. However, you know its not science proven and there are no evidence of their existence so, basically they are just a mere myth that passed down for generations.

  15. Fraser I have a question I found a photo from the mars rover that Cleary has a human skull and several nasa employees say that shortly after the Apollo program that the U.S. government sent people to mars but they did not come home what are your thoughts?

  16. I like how the Mars Rover head looks like Johnny 5 from "Short Circuit" think that was on purpose or a coincidence?

  17. Look at it this way, Yes we did come from alien life forms but we as a species are to violent so the aliens found a suitable planet (Earth) and left us here, when we have learnt to stop killing ourselves or show we can reach a set point in space (Launch from the moon or Mars) then they will make themselves known to us. We are been monitored all the time, we build AI then the AI control us. What has happened to the original aliens, what wiped them out, and will it come for us……..

  18. They all died out because there where no more jobs for the beings when the Robots and AI's took them all. Only the last rich family was left and they caught the flu and died. The robots and AI's had no more questions to answer and they shut down. Lonely I guess.

  19. What about some of our satellites especially those in GEO orbit or maybe Juno at Jupiter, how long would they last without human intervention?

  20. There is mentioning of the platonic plates destroying evidence. But then there is a mention of the fauna and flora changes being visible. Those would also be destroyed no ?
    They wouldn't know that big fauna was here in larger quantities before us. At most they would know what is after us.

  21. People keep thinking about humans in the animated sense when in fact if you look at what we are rather than a comparative analysis of our cultural events you will see that we are nothing more than another form of energy. We are and have always been an a semblance of energy taking form to express much like the different astronomical entities – expansion of cooperative (in our case ) particulate bio-chemical instruction developed through energy directed physics as released from the sun. In short we are and have been doing what everything inthis Universe has always been doing – re-releasing energy towards the expanding Universe. We should be looking at this energy process to seek other forms and expressions of energy in the form of what we call life – that which is the make up of an a semblance of ( cooperative particulate bio-chemical instruction developed through energy directed physics as released from the sun) to seek a similar expression of energy.

  22. Question – if we bury our household waste in landfill sites – is this removing carbon and other chemicals from our atmosphere? Will it eventually turn into rocks?

  23. It was only about 600 million years ago that enough oxygen had been released into the atmosphere for a protective ozone layer to form. Before that time, the land surface would have been more or less sterilized by ultraviolet radiation. If an advanced civilization had arisen from the creatures that populated the land, we would still see signs of them. The buildings might be gone, but the holes in the stone formations where they quarried their building material would remain. The mines where they obtained their metals would still be there, along with heaps of slag and backfill from the mines.

  24. As long as we haven't looked at any visible galaxy or star for signs of advanced civilizations, we can not be absolutely sure about that. But we have a sizeable amount of statistically significant data that indicates that we are the first (we are freakishly early on in the universe, after all… the stellar phase is mindboggling long – probably 100 trillion years – and not even one percent of one percent have passed of this enourmous timespan so far) – even though the numbers at hand (2 trillion galaxies, quintillions of stars and planets) are in favor of "others" to have arisen in the past, the data contradicts this assumption. Are we the first advanced civilization not just in the Solar System, but in our Galaxy or possibly even in our supercluster? Avoiding a definitive yes or no, I wanna answer the question this way: We don't have any evidence that we are not the most advanced. It should be likely that others, more advanced than us, have emerged somewhere else (our existence proves it is possible) – we just don't have any indication of that being true. We need proof to be sure – and so far there is none (unless we have misunderstood the viability of the concept of Dyson Swarms (and similiar megastructures) on a fundamental level).

  25. I like to watch the Rod Sterling "In Search of's", later to be narrated by Leonard NImoy. The series starts out with hour or more long videos, inspired by a "Chariots of the Gods" book. It's basically mixing the Fermi Paradox with "ancients couldn't possibly contruct these hugh temples." So, therefore, Ancient Aliens came down to Earth to construct temples . . . made of stone!

    I just enjoy them for the archaeology. They actually give great evidence for how religions start; they almost always start out with these hunter gatherors who assemble airplanes made of wood, in the shape of the airplanes flying overhead. They treated the airplanes like gods, and they constructed idols to bring them back!

    Anyways, it would be interesting if Venus was once Earthlike, and a technological species arose and then destroyed their environment. i don't think so, though. Consider this, if there were Venicians before they created a runaway greeenhouse affect, would they have left some daimondoid monument, with video on the moon? On the moon, the daimondoid monument would most likely survive. You say maybe an asteroid hit. Well, they would have thought of that as well, and made more than one, and spread them around. And, even if an asteroid could wipe out a whole daimondoid building, the pieces would still be scattered around the impact site.

    Or! They would have colonized the Earth. It's safe to say we are not Venicians.

  26. You have to think, Alien means just that, different from us in every way. Maybe they don't care about history and its preservation as we do, perhaps they're content to inhabit a single planet and die there without harvesting uranium or coal.

  27. no we are not. we tear our unborn children apart in the mothers wombs and then sell their body parts. some even drink childrens blood. no we're still savages…..

  28. After watching the planets and beyond I think Homo Sapiens are the first advanced race. But we will not evolve because the population is too big. Scientists will genetically modify us.

  29. About 55 million years ago there was a rapid release in greenhouse gasses, much like today. We should be looking for a large amount of species crossing continents in short time frames as humans always take animals with us. It does seem like there must be some intelligent species in Earth's past, intelligent like the Romans maybe, not space faring.

  30. are you sirius?
    mars look like an older earth
    it explain why it deserted and little water
    and why it logged with CO2
    oh fr**k

  31. If a civilization is so ancient that ALL evidence of it’s existence is destroyed for good, it’s the exact same thing as it had never existed. And since there is no evidence at all of it’s existence, anyone can say it did and invent anything they like, because remember… the absence of proof is not the proof of absence (apart from the fact that it is precisely that), and many people understand this sentence as “the absence of proof is the proof that what I say is the truth”

  32. 4:16 – I think you are off by a large factor. Like 3 orders of magnitude. That landscape isn't 1.8 MILLION years old, but 1.8 Billion. And most of Australia is nearly that old, too.

  33. Wait wait wait wait… so they want to preserve all human knowledge on some tiny lander thing on the surface of the Moon? And they put the entire WIKIPEDIA in it?
    You meant that site that has shit ton of politically motivated bullshit in it? Really?

  34. Bottom Line? we are nothing more then "The earliest known life forms on Earth putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent"-wiki. in the Grand Scale of TIME.

    Fifty years since most houses had a TV!?! and 'Scientist' etc. DARE! think they know ANYTHING!?! LOL!… I'm no scientist & I'm smarter then that…

    Yes, Someone has to be the first & Yes, that could be us. But! at the same time? ALOT of people have seen things? can they all just be stupid crazy people just Seeing Things???…

  35. The more I've looked into this subject and examined the "Goldilocks" hopes for life, I'm sadly slipping toward favoring the "rare earth" theory. After watching all these videos, I didn't realize how hard it is for an earth-like planet to exist. I never thought about the proper atmospheric pressure, magnetosphere, the role the moon plays, the composition of the atmosphere, axial planes, and on and on. I just thought, "a planet in the right spot from its sun is good enough." It's not enough. So sure, life being out there is more than probable, but intelligent or humanoid life? Man, it's tough to get where we are.

  36. I would just carve out the dark side of the moon, so that it looks like a giant butt. No better way to greet an incoming alien invasion!

  37. 8:25 "- the entire contents of Wikipedia" ??? Um, are we sure we wouldn't prefer a more reliable source like, say, the Encyclopedia Britannica?

  38. We are the first , the last , and the only intelligent specie in this Galaxy . And when we kill each other off , their will never be another .

  39. My thought is that when we actually figure out how to view, and hear much further out we will eventually find out that life and so called intelligent beings are much more plentiful than ever imagined.

  40. 4:44 Is this a reference to a Dr. Who episode? The one where statues hunted and killed people?
    7:11 🙂
    8:50 When are people going to stop that??? sigh
    9:50 Why except Europa?

  41. The extinction of Dinadour is associated to an asteroid but still, it is a theory. He is saying that humans have destroyed megafauna. If the next civilisation after our will speculate about the extinction of megafauna think like we do they will never associate that to an ancient civilisation because each time in current time you mention that as an hypothesis you get laughed in the fac e

  42. Being first always makes me feel good. But, in the near future we will be first to our timeline's catastrophe cycle. Stay tuned for a cat 10 disaster.

  43. Oceanic crust ages are much older, 150 million years at some subduction zones and inactive continental margins, a few days at a spreading ridge. The formations that fossils come from, that are exposed, show a huge range of exposed time layers of geology. Canadian shield is billions of years old, Alberta area is famous for its mesozoic rock. I am very confused by your statement about the oldest part of the earth's surface being in the Negev desert and 1.8 million years. Are we talking about something completely different oldest what exactly? The age ranges you give for exposed geologic layers are very different than what many sources indicate including the USGS, Woods Hole Institute, Scripps, UC Berkeley, etc.

  44. that paper is just wrong in its conclusions. The fly ash from the Siberian traps is 250 million years old, it looks exactly like ash from a coal fired power plant. The amount is more like a species using coal massively then anything else in the geologic record… except one event. If not for the geologic record preserving the massive lava formations that erupted through coal deposits and formed the Siberian Traps, we would ponder its source. Seriously, ugh, that paper just seems completely wrong, at least the conclusions you highlighted.

  45. As soon as some of our advanced ancestors believed in a flat earth stupidity, mankind slid into destruction.

  46. There is zero evidence had anything to do with the demise of the Megafauna… yes, let me restate that… there is ZERO EVIDENCE HUMANS KILLED OFF THE MEGAFAUNA! Also, you just gave an overall tonnage of carbon that humans are emitting… but what is the percentage of overall carbon? How could you differentiate which carbon was being emitted by natural sources and which was being emitted by civilization? Without actually being there at the source of emissions and measuring as they are emitted, you cannot! What kind of science channel is this?

  47. I would build a porn archive and spread it across the solar system. I guess Billion terabytes will cover just a portion of porn today. 😀

  48. Seeing that roadster in space reminded me of "Heavy Metal" with the Corvette. I could even here the soundtrack in my head, awesome!

  49. No ,I don't believe nasa lied us that we're the 1 in solar system. Even in other galaxy to universe they lied and said we're alone.they don't fool me

  50. It makes sense we are not the first advanced civilization in the Solar System, we just have to find evidence. It is also not beyond the realm of possibility that there are what I call Class 6 Civilizations that may have evolved just after the big bang over 13 Billion years ago. As to the 'knowledge' probe for the Moon maybe we should build a virtually eternal Knowledge Temple to house it when we arrive. It should be like an eternal beacon to attract not something hidden in the fossil record that no one will ever see.

  51. If the artifacts of the ancient civilization were found by Russia or China or the United States, and they contained ancient high-tech knowledge, advancing our development by at least 1000 years, then it would never have become public knowledge, since both would cult an evolutionary advantage. This is the first second, such artifacts have been found, the fact that you do not know about them, does not say that they are not there, but only says that you do not have access to them. Moreover, you assume that the ancient civilization has gone somewhere, and what if it has not gone somewhere, and its remains are still present on the planet, like some of its representatives. What if she is more developed and doesn’t want her tracks to be found, don’t think in this vein ?! You talk about the conditions of complete openness, but even within one country, some democratic documents and devices are hidden so well that their own citizens cannot find mention of them, let alone a whole civilization whose level of development is much higher than ours.

  52. Google or Youtube Blackknight. Also Out of parts artifacts. We are not the 1st. We are the most recent. In fact, there is evidence to support a solar system-wide war fought between possibly 3 sides.

  53. I figured the moon would make a better place for a time capsule, even just a few meters below the surface. Clarke picked Tycho crater (TMA-1), while I'd pick distinctive Tsiolkovskiy crater and central peak "island" on the far side.

  54. Does the library of information they are going to put on the moon have a nuclear powered beacon that will "beep" every day or two to let a future civilization know it is there?

  55. Perhaps we have like the face on mars or structures on the moon continuously blurred out by NASA… let's check phobos too, as Aldrin believes it to hold structures from some sort of ancient civilizations

  56. There's a lot of evidence of previous advanced tech, on earth. Look up "OoPArts," or out of place artifacts. The antikythera mechanism, for example. Absolutely amazing.

  57. Just look at the egypt time line, we humans cannot make what they had made then. They al ready been here and maybe dropt us here.

  58. I wouldn't be surprised if in the 100's of millions of years that vertebrate based animals had developed a sentience level equivalent and or greater than the intelligence of dolphins and wolves. As it is, even orangutans and otters have gained the minimal technological achievement of using tools to gain advantages in the natural world. It might be beneficial to look for fossil evidence of ancient animal rudimentary tool use in one of the epochs before it becomes impractical to search for such sparse evidence on the rapidly changing Earth.

  59. I think there has been an advanced civilization here on earth that fell to a nuclear war and the ruins and new information scientists continue to dig up about our ancient civil actions and the knowledge they possessed is the reason we explore space and why Mars is one of the main focuses of our exploration outside our planet. I think we should dive deeper into what we have here on our planet instead of an escape plan for when we as humans inevitably destroy Earth again.

  60. Just an idea… what if we were to drill deep holes near the leading edges of subduction zones, and drop our nuclear waste down to be pushed into the mantle? If plate tectonics can erase traces of civilization by recycling crust, why couldn't we put that to our use?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *