From The Moon to Mars – NASA’s Artemis Program

From The Moon to Mars – NASA’s Artemis Program


>>WELCOME TO THE IAC BY SHOW OF HANDS, RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU HAVE BEEN HERE BEFORE? YOU GOT A GOOD NUMBER. RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU HAVE NEVER BEEN TO IAC BEFORE? EVEN BUGGER NUMBER. FANTASTIC. WELL, THIS IS A BIG DEAL FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO HOST THIS CONFERENCE HERE. WE HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO SHOWCASE WHAT WE ARE DOING AS AN AGENCY. BY THE WAY, JUST SO EVERYBODY KNOWS. MY NAME IS JIM BRIDENSTINE. I AM THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR. I HAVE THE HONOR OF LEADING DISCOVERY AND SCIENCE AND HERE IN WASHINGTON, D.C., THIS WEEK, WE HAVE BEEN HOSTING THE INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUT CALL CONGRESS TO WHERE ALL OF THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD THAT ARE INTERESTED IN SPACE THAT HAVE SPACE AGENCIES WE CONVINCE AND TALK ABOUT WHAT WE’RE ALL GOING TO DO AS WE EXPLORE AND ABLE TO THEIR INFORMATION AND DON’T WANT TO DUPLICATE AND KEEP GOING FURTHER AND GO FURTHER AND FASTER THAN EVER BEFORE. AND OF COURSE WE DOON THAT WHEN WE WORK TOGETHER AND THAT IS THE INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUT CALL CONGRESS IS ALL ABOUT AND HOSTING IT HERE IN WASHINGTON,
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D.C. THIS WEEK AND NEXT YEAR IT IS GOING TO BE IN DUBAI AND I WITH A ENCOURAGE ALL OF THOSE HERE TO CONSIDER GOING TO THE ONE IN DUE BY A YEAR FROM TODAY. HERE IS THE THING. THERE IS A COUPLE OF THINGS I WANT TO START WITH THAT ARE IMPORTANT. SOME MAJOR DISCOVERIES. I KNOW THIS. A LOT OF IN THIS ROOM AND NOT INVOLVED IN THE SPACE INDUSTRY. THIS IS PUBLIC DAY. THIS IS A DAY WHERE PEOPLE FROM THE PUBLIC,WHO MAY NOT OTHERWISE BE IN SPACE HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO COME TO THE IAC AND HEAR WHAT NASA IS UP TO. I GOT ABOUT AN HOUR. I AM BEING TOLD 56 MINUTES ACCORDING TO THE CLOCK HERE. TO GIVE YOU UPDATE AS TO WHAT NASA IS UP TO. BUT TO START, I WANT TO SHARE SOME THINGS THAT I THINK ARE REMARKABLE. WE HAD TWO RECOVERS ON MARS AND NOT TOO LOCK AGO. AN OPPORTUNITY. OPPORTUNITY LASTED 15 YEARS. SPIRIT LASTED 10 YEARS AND THESE ROVERS ON MARS GAVE US SIGNIFICANT DISCOVERIES. BECAUSE OF THESE TWO LITTLE RECOVERS WE NOMARS HAS AN OCEAN. THAT OCEAN CONSTITUTED TWO-THIRDS OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE OF MARS. WE KNOW THAT MARS HAD A THICK ATMOSPHERE. MARS HAD SPHERE BECAUSE OF THE TWO LITTLE RECOVERS. IN OTHER WORDS AT ONE POINT IN THE HISTORY OF MARS, IT COULD HAVE HOSTED A LIFE. DO WE KNOW IT DID? NO, WE DON’T KNOW. I WILL TELL YOU WHAT? WE WANT TO FIND OUT. I WANT TO TELL YOU SOMETHING ELSE THAT IS IMPORTANT. WITHIN THE LAST YEAR, MAYBE THE LAST 15 MONTHS, SOME REALLY AMAZING DISCOVERIES HAVE HAPPENED. NUMBER ONE. THIS IS BECAUSE OF CURIOSITY RECOVER? ANOTHER RECOVER THAT IS STILL ACTIVE ON MARS. AND THE IN SIGHT LANDER. HERE IS WHAT WE KNOW. WE KNOW THAT MARS IS COVERED WITH COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. IN OTHER WORDS, THE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR LIFE ARE ON MARS. DOES THAT MEAN LIFE IS THERE? WE DON’T KNOW. WE KNOW THAT THE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR LIFE EXIST ON MARS. WE KNOW THEY DON’T EXIST AT ALL ON THE MOON, BUT THEY ARE IN FACT ALL OVER MARS. THE PROB K OF FINDING LIFE ON ANOTHER WORLD JUST WENT UP. WE ALSO KNOW IN THE LAST 15 MONTHS, THAT THE METHANE SEE YOU SOCIAL SECURITY OF MARS ARE COMMENSURATE WITH THE LISTENS SINCE OF MARS. DOES THAT GUARANTEE LIFE? NO. IT COULD BE GEOLOGICAL IN HEY TURE BUT INDICATOR OF LIFE THE PROBABILITY OF FINDING LIFE ON ANOTHER WORLD JUST WENT UP. FINALLY HERE IS WHAT ELSE WE HAVE DISCOVERED THIS IS WHAT THE INTERNATIONAL NARTERS. LIQUID WATER ON MARS, 12-KILOMETERS UNDER THE SURFACE OF MARS? WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT LIQUID WATER ON EARTH THIS WHEREVER IT EXISTS, THERE IS LIFE. IT IS THAT TRUE ON MARS? AGAIN, I DON’T KNOW. BUT WE NEED TO GO FIND OUT. THIS IS SOMETHING THAT IS IMPORTANT TO NASA. IT IS IMPORTANT TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. IT IS IN FACT IMPORTANT TO HUMANITY. THERE IS ONE PERSON THAT I KNOW WHO IS MORE INTERESTED IN FINDING LAV ON ANOTHER WORLD THAN ANY PERSON I HAVE EVER MET IN MY LIFE. AND I HAD A VERY DISSTINT HONOR. A VERY DISTINCT HONOR TO SERVE WITH THIS GENTLEMEN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. THIS IS SOMEBODY AND I WILL INTRODUCE HIM HERE IN A FEW MINUTES BUT I WANT TO TELL YOU WHAT I KNOW ABOUT HIM PERSONALLY. HE WAS APPROPRIATATOR. HE CHAIRED THE COMMERCE JUSTICE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE HERE IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES THIS WAS SOMETHING ON THAT WAS ON THE HEART THAT WAS DESIRE OF HIS TO CHAIR THAT COMMITTEE FOR REASON. HE WANTED TO GO FIND OUT IF THERE IS LAV ON OTHER WORLDS. AND AS CHAIRMAN OF THAT COMMITTEE, HE HAD OVERSIGHTS OF NASA. HES WITH ABLE TO MAKE SURE NASA HAD THE FUNDING IT NEEDED TO ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVES. HE WAS ONE OF THOSE APRETORRATORS THAT MADE SURE, AND THIS IS NOT NORMAL IN CONGRESS. HE TOLD ME THIS. HE TOLD IT TO ME OVER AND OVER AGAIN. HE SAID I WILL NEVER PUT A MISSION ON YOU THAT I ALSO DON’T FUND. AND HE WORKED BIPARTISAN. ACROSS THE AISLE, REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRAT ALAKE, TO MUCK SURE THAT NASA HAD THE RESOURCES IT NEEDED TO GO FIND LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS. I WANT TO DRUCE TO YOU SOMEBODY WHO I CAR DEAR FRIEND REPRESENTATIVE JOHN CULBERSON, IF YOU WILL COME OUT. THE HONORABLE JOHN CULBERSON. [APPLAUSE] WE ARE HONORING REPRESENTATIVE JOHN CULBERSON WITH NASA’S DISTINGUISHED PUBLIC SERVICE MIDDAL. THE ABSOLUTE HIGHEST LEVEL WE CAN GIVE TO THE CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES. WE’RE SO GRATEFUL FOR THE LEADERSHIP, ALL OF YOUR HELP, OH, BY THE WAY, YOUR FUNDING FOR OUR MISSION. SO WITH THAT I WOULD LIKE TO GIVE THIS YOU MEDAL. THIS IS DISTINGUISHED PUBLIC SERVICE MEDAL FROM NASA. [APPLAUSE]>>THANK YOU. THANKS. THIS SINGULAR HONOR IS ALL THE MORE MEANINGFUL TO ME BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN PRESENTED BY, IN MY OPINION, THE BEST ADMINISTRATOR NASA EVER HAD IN 18 YEARS IN CONGRESS. THE MOST KNOWLEDGEABLE.>>CAREFUL THERE ARE OTHER NASA ADMINISTRATORS HERE. [LAUGHTER]>>THANK YOU, JIM. FOR ALL YOUR HOPE TO HELP LIFT UP MARK’S SPACE PROGRAM IN A BIPARTISAN WAY. WE DID SO IN A BIPARTISAN WAY. I ESPECIALLY WANT TO THANK MY WIFE AND OUR DAUGHTER, CAROLINE, FOR PUTTING UP WITH AL THE LONG SEPARATIONS CAUSED BY MY PUBLIC SERVICE. AND FOR ENDURING MY LIFELONG OBSESSIVE FASCINATION WITH SCIENTIFIC DISCOVER ARIC AND SPACE EXPLORATION. I WANT TO THANK THE NEW LAW PARTNER, KEVIN KELLY, FOR HELPING ME, BETTER UTILIZE THE POWER OF THE PURSE AS APRETORRATOR AS CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMERCE TESTED SCIENCE SUB COMMITTEE TO ENFORCE THE LAW AS THE FOUNDERS INTEND. THE POWER OF THE PERSON IS THE MOST IMPORTANT CHECK AND BALANCE IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THANK KEVIN FOR HELPING ME GET STARTED SUCCESSFULLY IN THE NEW PHASE KNIFE LIFE. ABOVE ALL, I WANT TO THANK THE VOTERS OF WEST HOUSTON FOR INTERESTING ME TO REPRESENT THEM IN THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS FOR 18 PRODUCTIVE YEARS. THEY SUPPORTED ME IN ALL OF MY MOST VISIBLE WORK. EXPANDING INTERSTATE 10 IN WEST HOUSTON AND REBUILDING AFTER THE DEVASTATING FLOODS OF HURRICANE HARVEY. THE VOTERS OF DISTRICT ALSO SUPPORTED ME IN THE LESS VISIBLE WORK AND SUPPORT OF MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND THE WORK THAT GAVE ME THE GREATEST JOYS BEFORE ALL TOLL RESTORE OUR SPACE PROGRAM AND TO LIFT NASA FUNDING AS CLOSE AS I COULD GET IT BACK TO THE GLORY DAYS OF APPALL LOW. [APPLAUSE]>>THANK YOU. ONE OF MY HEROS TOLD ME THAT PEARL SAID EXPLORING THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND HOMESTEADING OTHER WORLDS CONSTITUTES THE BEGINNING MUCH MORE THAN THE END OF HISTORY. I AM SO FORTUNATE. WELL THE HELP OF MY COLLEAGUES AND THE SUPPORT OF MY CONSTITUENTS AND MY FAMILY AND MY FOUR SHORT YEARS AS CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMERCE TESTED SCIENCE SUBCOMMITTEE, WE WERE ABLE TO SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASE OVERALL NASA FUNDING. WE DOUBLED THE PLANETARY SCIENCE ACCOUNT SO WE CAN FINALLY HAVE IT. THAT IS NATURALLY IMPORTANT. BY DOUBLING THE SCIENCE ACCOUNT,’S CAN FINALLY HAVE THE PROPER BALANCE AND LAWN OF FLAGSHIP NEW FRONT TER AND DISCOVERY CLASS MISSIONS AND WON’T HAVE TO FIGHT ACH OTHER. EVERYBODY GETS A CHANCE AND PUCK THE BEST MISSION, MR. ADMINISTRATOR. BEST OF ALL. WORKING TOGETHER IN A BIPARTISAN WAY WE ENSURE IT WOULD WIL BE IN AMERICAN OR BITTER AND LANDER AS PART OF INTERNATIONAL TEAM THAT WILL BE THE FIRST IN HUMAN HISTORY TO SEEK OUT LIFE IN THE HIDDEN WORLDWIDE OCEAN OF EUROPA. AND WE LAID THE GROUND TO WORK ENSURE IT WILL BE AMERICAN SPACECRAFT AS PART OF INTERNATIONAL TEAM, THAT WILL BE THE FIRST MISSION TO TRAVEL TO THE NEAREST EARTH-LIKE PLANET WITH A FINGERPRINT OF LIFE IN ITS ATMOSPHERE. THE MOST EXCITING AND MEANINGFUL PART OF MY 18 YEARS IN CONGRESS HAS BEEN MY WORK WITH ALL OF YOU IN THE SPACE PROGRAM ALL OF YOU WHO CAN SEE OVER THE HORIZON IN THE FAR FUTURE AND TO HELP YOU MAKE THOSE DREAMS COME TRUE. BECAUSE I SHARE THE SAME PASSIONATE BELIEF OF MY FAVORITE FOUNDING FATHER THOMAS JEFFERSON WHO SAID I LIKE THE DREAMS OF THE FUTURE FAR BETTER THAN THE MEMORIES OF THE PAST. THANK YOU VERY MUCH. THANK YOU, JIM. [APPLAUSE]>>THANK YOU, REPRESENTATIVE FOR YOUR LEADERSHIP THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND, PK, YOU ARE NOT DONE YET.>>I AM NOT DONE YET. HE CALLS ME TO MAKE SURE I AM FOLLOWING THE LAWS HE WROTE WHEN HE WAS IN THE HOUSE. WE ARE GRATEFUL FOR THAT. KEEP IT UP. ALL RIGHT. THANK YOU. YOU BET. THANK YOU. ALL RIGHT. WE TALKED ABOUT MARS. WE HAVE DONE ALL THE ROVERS ON MARS BUT ONE THING THAT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER IS IN NOVEMBER OF LAST YEAR, WE LAND ON THE SURFACE OF MARS FOR THE EIGHTH TIME IN HUMAN HISTORY. WITH A LANDER WE CALLED INSIGHT. WHEN WE LANDED ON MARS WITH INSIGHT, IT WAS ON THE COVER OF EVERY NEWSPAPER WORLDWIDE. REALLY FOR THE FIRST TIME, I SAW HOW IMPACTFUL THIS LITTLE AGENCY CALLED NASA, THAT VEFS LESS THAN ONE-HALF OF ONE PERCENT OF MARK’S FEDERAL BUDGET, HOW IMPACTFUL THIS CAN BE ALL AROUND THE WORLD, TO INSPIRE CHILDREN AND REALLY SHAPE IM IMAGINATIONS OF CHILDREN NOT JUST TOWARD SCIENCE AND DITS COVER RY, BUT TOWARD THE UNITED STATES OF MERCK AND HOW WE WANT TO BUILD A COALITION OF NATIONS WHEN WE LANDED INSIGHT ON MARS, WE DID NOT DO IT ALONE. YES, IT WAS AMERICAN SPACECRAFT. WE WENT WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS. WITH THE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS WERE WITH US, ON THE COVER OF AL THE NEWSPAPERS WORLD RYDE, IT TALKED, THE LAST PROGRAM AND THE ARTICLES TALKED ABOUT THE TRUN T.S FROM THE INTERNATIONAL PARTNER, THE TECHNOLOGY FROM THE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS NOW I THINK IS SPIN IN SPRIGGAL FOR EVERYBODY IN THE WORLD WHEN WE LEAD THESE EFFORT AND ABLE TO DO THAT BECAUSE OF THE SUPPORT AND HELP OF JOHN CULBERSON AND MEMBERS OF CONGRESS THAT REASON THE HOUSE TODAY AND THE SENATE. INSIGHT WAS BEGINNING. JUST A FEW SHORT MONTHS AFTER WE LAND ON MAR, WHICH WAS SPECTACULAR, WE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO ENTER ORBIT AROUND AN ASTEROID IN DEEP SPACE. WE END ENTERED ORBIT WITH A DEEP SPACECRAFT WITH OSIRIS-REX. IT IS IN ORBIT AROUND BENNU AND BRING IT BACK TO EARTH FOR THE FIRST TIME AMERICA WILL DO ASTEROID RETURN MISSION. I THINK THAT IS SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENT. JAPAN HAS DONE ONE. JAPAN IS ALREADY DOING 2. NOUR WE ARE EXAMINING TO BE ABLE TO EXCHANGE SAMPLES INTERNATIONALLY NOT JUST EXCHANGE SAMPLES BUT HAVE OURS AND THEIRS WORKING SIDE-BY-SIDE TO EVALUATE THE SAMPLES THAT COME BACK FROM THE TWO VERY IMPORTANT MISSIONS THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN EACH LEADING THEIR OWN MISSION TO THE ASTEROIDS IN DEEP SPACE. THAT HAPPENED ON DECEMBER 20th. THEN ON JANUARY FIRST, WE HAD LITTLE SPACECRAFT THAT WE CALLED NEW HORIZON. THIS LITTLE SPACECRAFT CALLED NEW HORIZONS WHICH GAVE US BAUTFUL IMAGES OF PLUTO IN 2015. RAISE YOUR HAND IF YOU SAW THE IMAGES OF PLUTO IN 20156789. THEY WERE PHENOMENAL. THANK FOR DOING THAT. I JUST GOT TO KNOW THE AUDIENCE, RIGHT. THE BEAUTIFUL PANELS OF PLU FRO NOT THE END. THEY WERE BEGINNING. NEW HORIZONS KEPT GOING AND WENT WAY OUT TO WHAT WE CALL THE CLIPPER BELT WHERE THERE ARE ALL KINDS OF OBJECT IN DEEP SPACE. WE ARE TALKING ABOUT FOUR BILLION MILES FROM EARTH. WE POT THE BEAUTIFUL IMAGES OF SOMETHING CALLED ULTIMA THULE. WE ARE STILL GETTING ABSOLUTELY BEAUTIFUL IMAGES BACK FROM THE NEW HOR LIE RYE ZONES SPACECRAFT THAT GAVE US THE BEAUTIFUL IMAGES AND THE SCIENCE AND THE DATA A ON ULT TY MA THULE. WHILE WE ARE ON THIS TONGUE. THERE IS SOMETHING ELSE THAT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE. 2006 MANY OF YOU UNTHIS RAM ARE AWARE, THAT PLUTO GOT DOWNGRADE INTERESTED A PLANET TO A DWARF PLANET. BOO. I HEAR PEOPLE BOOING. THAT’S MY SENSE. BEFORE THE SCIENCE WE GOT IN 2019 AND SOME PEOPLE ARGUED IN ORDER TO BE A PLANET, YOU TO BE ABLE TO CLEAR YOUR ORBIT AROUND THE SUN. IF THAT CHEFSES IN WE’RE GOING TO USE, YOU COULD REALLY UNDERCUT ALL OF THE PLANETS. THEY ARE ALL DWARF PLANETS BECAUSE THERE IS NOT A LISTEN NET THAT CLEARS EBB TIRE ORBIT AROUND THE SUN. THAT PEAKING THE CASE, I THINK I I IS A SLOPPY DEFINITION. MANY OF YOU HAVE HEARD ME SAY THIS PUBLICLY. THINK THE WAY YOU DEA FIND A PLANET BASED ON THE INTRINSIC VALUES NO THE VALUES THAT CONSTANTLY CHANGE LIKE ORBITAL DYNAMICS WHAT I THINK ABOUT PLUTO AND WHAT WE GOT PACK FROM NEW HORIZONS. HERE IS WHAT WE KNOW. PLUTO HAS OCEAN UNDER A SURFACE. PLUTO HAS COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON ITS SURFACE. PLU TOW HAS A MULTI LAYER ATMOSPHERE AND PLUTO HAS ITS OWN MOON. I AM HER TO TELL YOU, AS THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR, I BELIEVE PLU TOW IS A PLANET. [APPLAUSE] WE NEED TO KEEP LETTING PEOPLE KNOW. BUS THAT NEW HORIZONS MISSIONS WITH AMAZING AND IT IS GIVING US GREAT INFORMATION. OK. FROM NEW HORIZONS. IN FEBRUARY, WE SAW THE CREW DRAGON ONE OF THE NASA COMMERCIAL CREW PROGRAMS ATTACHED TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. WE’RE ON THE CUSP OF ONCE GAIN LAUNCHING AMERICAN ASTRONAUT ON AMERICAN ROCKETS FROM AMERICAN SOIL FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE RETIRE. THE SPACE SHUTTLE IN 2011. [APPLAUSE] I WANT TO BE CLEAR. WE NEED TO RETURN TO THAT ACTIVITY. WE NEED TO GO WITH OUR INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS. WOE ARE LOOKING FOR ALL TO STEP UP AND HELP US AS WE WORK TO COMMERCIALIZE LOW EARTH ORBIT. HERE IS WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO ACHIEVE. WE’RE USING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR OR TWO LINES OF EFFORT FOR EVENTUAL COMMERCIALIZATION OF LOW ORBIT THESE TWO LINES INCLUDE BY OH MEDICINE. AND HERE IS WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO DO. WE ARE LACK FOR BREAKTHROUGHS. WE NEED BREAKTHROUGHS THAT WILL TRANSFORM HOW WE LIVE ON ETHER. WHEN THE BREAKTHROUGHS OCCUR. CAPITAL WILL FLOW INTO WHAT WILL BE COMMERCIAL SPACE STATION IN LOW EARTH ORBIT. SO HOW DO WE DO THAT? TWO LINES OF EFFORT. NUMBER ONE IS INDUSTRIALIZED BY OMID SIN. RIGHT NOW WE ARIZING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION TO COME FOUND PHARMACEUTICALS TO CREATE IMMUNIZATIONS IN WHICH WAYS WE CAN DOT DO HERE ON THE GRAVITY ON ETHER RIGHT NOW WE’RE USING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ULTIMATELY TO PRINT IN 3D HUMAN TISSUE. EVENTUALLY HUMAN ORGANS. USING ADULT STEM CELLS WITH THE PURPOSE OF TRANSFORMING LIVES HERE ON EARTH. WE’RE USING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION TO CREATE ARTIFICIAL RETINAS IN ORBIT. THESE ARE THINGS CAN YOU DO NOT DO HERE ON EARTH BECAUSE THE WAY MATERIALS ARE LAYERED BUT YOU CAN DO IT IN THE MICROGRAVITY OF FACE. WHEN IT SIX SESFUL, BY THE WAY, I MADGE GIN. IMAGINE A BOX THAT FITS FIT IN THE BAM OF YOUR HAND. UP THE BOX GOES WITH MATERIALS INSIDE. THEN, WHEN THAT BOX COMES BACK TO EARTH, 1,000 ARTIFICIAL RETINAS SO PEOPLE WHO HAVE MACULAR DEGENERATION DON’T HAVE TO LOSE THEIR EYESIGHT. WEATHERING’S INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION TO CREATE THESE BREAKTHROUGHS THAT WILL RESULT IN CAPITAL FORMATION SO WE CAN HAVE A DAY OF MULTIPLE SPACE STATIONS FUNDED BY COMMERCIAL INDUSTRY SO WE CAN CONTINUE TO HAVE A RESINS AND LOW EARTH ORBIT AND NASA, OF COURSE, WILL ALWAYS HAVE A PRESENCE, I WANT TO BE CLEAR. NASA WILL ALWAYS HAVE A PRESENCE WE IL BE A CUSTOMER BUT JUST LIKE WHAT WE ARE DOING WITH COMMERCIAL RESUPPLY TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, NASA WANTS TO BE A CUSTOMER. WE WANT TO BE ONE CUSTOMER OF MANY CUSTOMERS IN A VERY ROBUST COMMERCIAL MARKETPLACE IN LOW EARTH ORBIT AND WE WANT TO HAVE NUMEROUS PROVIDERS THAT ARE COMPETING EACH OTHER ON COST AND INNOVATION. WHY? BECAUSE THAT IS HOW WE DRIVE DOWN COSTS. S THAT HOW WE INCREASE ACCESS. WE ARE DOING IT RIGHT NOW WITH COMMERCIAL RESUPPLY TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND WE EVENTUALLY WANT TO TAKE THAT AND WE ARE ALMOST THERE. WE’RE ON THE CUSP OF DOING IT WITH COMMERCIAL CREW TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. WITH TWO SEPARATE PROVIDERS THAT ARE COMPETING ON COST AND IN LOVATION AND BY THE WAY. THERE COULD BE OTHERS. WE’RE VERY ANXIOUS ABOUT MAKING SURE THAT THERE IS OPPORTUNITIES TO GO BEYOND WHAT NASA HAS ALREADY FUNDED. BUT THEN EVENTUALLY WHAT WE NEED TO DO NEXT IS WE NEED TO SEE HABITATION IN LOW EARTH ORBIT THAT IS COMMERCIAL IN NATURE. SO WE NEED THAT INDUSTRIAL BUY OMID SIN TO BE SUCCESSFUL AND WE NEEDED AD MATERIALS TO BE SUCCESSFUL AS WELL. WE TALK ABOUT Z BRAND, CYBER OPTICS THESE ARE THE CAPABILITY HAS WE ARE USING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION TO PREV OUT THEY CAN CREATE PRISTINE, CLEAR FIBER OPTICS IN A WAY THAT IF IT IS ACHIEVABLE WILL REDUCE THE COST OF TUBER OPTIC NETWORKS HERE ON EARTH AND THE BUSINESS CASE CLOSES AND CAPITAL IWELL FLOW AND IN FACT IN SPACE MANUFACTURING AND WAYS THAT RATING NOW DOES NOT EXIST. WE ARE USING INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR COMMERCIALIZATION. I WANT TO BE CLEAR. SOME PEOPLE WOULD SUGGEST THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION COMPETES AGAINST PRIVATE HABITATION AND LOW EARTH ORBIT. THAT IS UNDERMENTALLY UNRU. WE’RE USING THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE SPACE STATION TENABLE THINK COMMERCIAL OPERATORS TO BE SUCCESSFUL. LOW EARTH ORBIT, COLMERSION RESUPPLY, COMMERCIAL CREW, EVENTUALLY COMMERCIAL HABITATION. HERE IS WHAT WE KNOW. WE DO NOT WANT A GAP IN LOW EARTH ORBIT. WE HAD THE CHALLENGE WITH APOLLO IS THAT IT ENDED. ULTIMATELY WHEN IT ENDED, WE HAD EIGHT YEAR GAP BEFORE THE SHUTTLE. THEN WE HAD THE SHUTTLE ENDED. NOW WE HAD ANOTHER EIGHT YEAR GAP BEFORE COMMERCIAL CREW. WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT WE DO NOT HAVE A GAP WITH PRESENCE IN LOW EARTH ORBIT. THERE ARE KIDS GRD RATE ATING FROM HIGH SCHOOL TODAY THAT LIVED ENTIRE LIVES WITH AMERICANS LIVING AND WORKING WITH IN PACE. AND BY THE WAY, INTERNATIONAL SPART MERES WITH US LIVING AND WORK IN SPACE. THAT IS FAN TASTE. WE WANT TO MAKE SURE NEVER BREAKS. HOW DO WE DO THAT WE USE THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE SPACE STATION TO CREATE THE COMMERCIAL HAB TA TATION REQUIREMENT. MATILY, THAT IS HOW NASA BECOMES A CUSTOMER. ONE CUSTOMER OF MAN. ABOUT WE HAVE NUMEROUS ROW PRIDERS THAT ARE COMPETING. EVERYTHING I TALKED ABOUT PIS LOW EARTH ORBIT. WHAT WE NEEDS DOZ AFTER THIS. WHEN THAT IS SUCK SECFUL THE COST GO DOWN ACCESS GOES UP. THEN WE CAN USE THE RESOURCE OF THE AMERICAN TAXPAYERS GIVE US TO GO EVEN FURTHER TO DO WHAT ALREADY WE’RE NOT ABLE TO DO AND THAT IS WE NEED TO GO BACK TO THE MOON. WE NEED TO GO SUSTAINABLY. THAT WAS WHAT SPACE POLICY DIRECTIVE WINCE ALL ABOUT? WE GO FORWARD TO MAP. WE’RE NOT GOING BACK TO THE MOON. WE’RE NOT GOING TO THE MOON. WE’RE GOING FORWARD TO THE MOON AND IN OTHER WORDS, WE’RE GOING TO STAY. FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME. WE ARE GOING TO GO WITH INTERNATIONAL, COMMERCIAL PARTNERS. WE ARE GOING TO UTILIZE THE RESOURCE OF THE MOON. WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT WHAT THOSE RESOURCES ARE, HUNDREDS OF TONS OF WATER THIGHS WE KNOW EXIST ON THOSE SOUTH POLE THE MOON PROBABLY MORE THE NORTH POLE OF THE MOON, THERE IS WATER ICE AS WELL. HOW. WE NEED TO FIND OUT. KNOW. WE HAVE MISSION NEW I AM PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE. IT IS CALLED VIPER. WE ARE GOING TO TAKE ROVER TO THE MOON THE NEW PROGRAM WE CALL THE COMMERCIAL LUNAR PAYLOAD SERVICE. WE ARE BUYING SERVICES TO GO TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WE GOT A NUMBER OF COMPANIES RIGHT NEW HAVE CONTRACTS THAT WE HAVE EYE DON’T NEED WE BELIEVE CAN TAKE US TO THE MOON WHERE NAS SAYS NOT PURCHASING OWNING, OPERATING THE HARDWARE BUT INSTEAD WE ARE BUYING A SERVICE TO GET ACTIVITIES TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. THE REASON AGAIN BEING WE WANT THOSE COMPANIES TO GO GET CUSTOMERS THAT ARE NOT US. TO DRIVE DOWN THE COST AND INCREASE ACCESS. A LOT OF THESE COMPANIES ARE DOING JUST THAT. BUT WE’RE GOING TO USE THE COMMERCIAL LUNAR PAYLOAD SERVICES PROGRAM. WE’RE GOING TO USE THAT TO DELIVER VIPER TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. VIPER IS GOING TO ROVE ON THE SOUTH POLE OF THE MOON AND VIPIR IS GOING TO ACCESS WITH THE WATER-ICE IS. WE ARE GOING TO BE ABLE TO CHARACTERIZE THE WATER ICE AND ULTIMATELY DRILL AND FIND OUT JUST HOW IS THE WATER ICE EMBEDDED IN THE MOON. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? BECAUSE WATER ICE VENTS SOMETHING SIGNIFICANT. LAV SUPPORT. WATER ICE IS OXYGEN TO BREATH. IT IS WATER TO DRINK. HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN WHEN YOU CRACK IT INTO A PART. IT IS THE SAME ROCKET FUEL THAT POWERS THE SLS ROCKET, WILL BE COMING OUT OF THE SAMEBLY FACILITY HAVEN’T OF THIS YEAR. THE MOST POWERFUL ROCKET AMERICA HAS EVER BUILT, THAT IS GOING TO TALK OUR ASTRONAUTS BACK TO THE MOON. THE HIGH DRE GONE AND OXYGEN ROCKET. HERE IS WHAT WE KNOW. OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN IS AVAILABLE ON THE SUR FASHION OF THE MOON IN HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF TONS. ROCKET FUEL IS AVAILABLE OB THE SURFACE OF THE MACHINE AND CAN USED AND WE NEED TO US.>>I NOT JUST FOR LIFE SUPPORT, BUT EVEN FOR MAYBE EVEN ROCKET FUEL. WE ARE GOING WITH SPECIAL?AL PARTNERS. WE ARE GOING WITH COMMERCIAL PARTNERS. WE ARE GOING TO UTILIZE THE RESOURCES OF THE MACHINE TO LIB AND LEARN HOW TO WORK FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME. THEN, ULTIMATELY, WE WILL TAKE WHAT WE BUILD, WHAT WE UNDERSTAND THE TECHNOLOGIES, THE CAPABILITY, THE ARCHITECTURE AND AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE, WE ARE BUILDING THE ARCHITECTURE TO BE REP PLY CABLE AT MARS. WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT WHY IT IS SO IMPORTANT TO GO TO MARS. COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. WE HAVE METHANE CYCLES COMMENSURATE WITH SINCE. LIQUID WATER UNDER THE SURFACE OF MARS. WE NEED TO GO FIND LIFE ON THE ANOTHER WORLD IF IT EXISTS. I KNOW THAT CHAIRMAN CULBERSON IS ALL ABOUT THIS. WE’RE WORKING HARD TO MAKE IT HAPPEN AND CHAIRMAN YOU WILL, YOU ARE THE LEGACY WE ARE GOING TO MAKE SURE IT GETS DONE. IN ORDER TO CREATE THE ARC FOR TU WE HAVE TO HAVE THE ROCKET. GAN THE MOST POWERFUL ROCKET THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA HAS EVER BUILT. WE NEED A EUROPEAN SERVICE MODULE. WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON FOR THE FIRST TIME, IT WILL BE INTERNATIONAL IN NATURE. THE EUROPEAN SERVICE MOD MODULE IS CRITICAL COMPONENT TO THE ORION CREW CAP SAUL. YOU HOUSE WITH GET THES A VO NOWS TO THE I HAVE STIN THINK OF MACHINE IN NOT ENOUGH THERE TO GO TO LOW LUNAR ORBIT AND LAND ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. SO WE NEED TO GET MORE DELTA V. DO WE GET THAT INWE’RE BUILDING A REUSABLE COMMAND MODULE IN ORBIT AROUND THE MOON THAT WE CALL GATEWAY. GATEWAY IS GOING TO BE ORBIT AROUND THE MOON FOR 15 YEARS. GATEWAY IS IMPORTANT FOR NUMBER OF REASONS. WE’RE NOT REBUILDING THE THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AROUND THE MOON. WHAT WE’RE BUILDING IS A SUSTAINABLE COMMAND MODULE THAT WILL BE THERE FOR 15 YEARS THAT IS MANEUVERABLE. SOLAR ELECTRIC PROPULSION AND CAN GO TO THE NORTH POLE. I CAN GO TO THE SOUTH POLE. WHY THAT IS IMPORTANT? THERE IS A LOT ABOUT THE MOON WE DON’T KNOW. FROM 1969 UP TO 2009 WE THOUGHT THE MOON WAS BONE-DRY. WHY M BECAUSE WE LANDED BE THE EQUATORIAL REGIONS OF THE MOON. WE ACCESSED THE WHOLE MOON WAS LIKE EQUATORIAL REGION. 2009 WE MAKE THESE AMAZING DISCOVER IS WHERE OUR INTERNATIONAL PART PARTNERS THERE IS HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF TONS OF WATER USE ON THE SOUTH POLE. HOW DID WE MISS IT FOR 40 YEARS PAUSE WE DIDN’T GO TO ALL OF THE MOON. THERE IS SO MUCH MORE ABOUT THE MOON WE NEED TO LEARN SO THE GATEWAY IS MANEUVERABLE. THE GATEWAY IS ALSO IN EAR LER FOR INTERNATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL PARTNERS WHEN WE BUILD THE GATEWAY IN ORBIT AROUND THE MOON IT IS GOING TO BE OPEN ARCHITECTURE. WHEN I SAY IT IS OPEN WHAT I MAN IS THE WAY WE DO DOCKING. WE WAY WE DO DATA. THE WAY WE DO INFORMATION AND AVIONICS THE WAY WE DO ENVIRONMENTAL CELL AND LIFE SUPPORT. IT IS AVAILABLE AND PUBLISHED ON THE INTERNET FOR EVERYBODY TO SEE. OUR INTERNATIONAL SPART NER WITH US A BIG COUNTRY OAR SMALL COUNTRY, MAYBE, MAYBE YOU ARE A PRIVATE COMPANY. YOU WILL BE A ABLE TO PROPOSE TO NASA HOW YOU WANT TO UTILIZE THE GATEWAY AND IN A UNIQUE WAY THAT WILL TRANSFORM THE HUMAN CONDITION HERE ON EARTH AND WE WANT THAT TO BE AVAILABLE TO YOU. THE GOAL IS TO ENABLE EVERYBODY TO DO MORE. GATEWAY IS THAT END AND LER. NOW IT IS JUST NOT END AND LER FOR COMMERCIAL AND INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS. HERE IS THE KEY. IT IS ALSO ENABLER FOR SCIENCE. HISTORICALLY AT NASA WE HAD THIS CHALLENGE. WHERE EVERY DOLLAR SPENT ON HUMAN EX MORE RIGS AND OPERATION IS A DOLLAR THAT IS NOT SPENT OB SCIENCE. EVERY DOLLAR SPENT ON SCIENCE IS A DOLLAR NOT SPENT ON OPERATIONS. WELL, WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON THE GATEWAY, WE HAVE A COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE UNORBIT AROUND THE MOON. WE W OUR COLMERSION AND INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS ALL OF THE SUDDEN, THE COSTS OF DOING THINGS LIKE ASTROPHYSICS GOES WAY DOWN. ASTROPHYSICS IS PART OF THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE. SO IT IS NOT NO LEARNING SER ZE GAME BY DOING HUMAN EXPLORATION WE’RE EN AC LING ASTROPHYSICS. THAT IS KEY END AND BLER SO WE GOT A MISSION I AM EXCISED ABOUT. IT IS BEING LEAD BY THEMES RESEARCH CENTER WITH OTHERS OPERATED BY NASA AS WELL AND THIS MISSION IS GOING TO HELP US SEE NOT JUST BACK INTO SPACE OR DEEP SPACE BUT ALSO BACK INTO TIME. WE ARE GOING TO SEE NOT JUST THE FIRST LIGHT IN THE UNIVERSE AFTER THE BIG BANG. WE WILL SEE BEFORE THE FIRST FLIGHT. WE WILL SEE WHAT ARE CALLED THE DARK AGES. AND WE CAN SEE IT FROM THE FAR SIDE OF THE MOON BECAUSE IT IS SO QUIET. FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM PERSPECTIVE. AND THE REASON WE’RE ABLE TO THINK ABOUT THIS NOW IS BECAUSE WE’RE GOING TO HAVE COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE AROUND THE MOON THAT INCLUDES THE DATE WHICH AND THAT COMMUNICATION MEANS WE DON’T HAVE TO LAUNCH A 500 MILLION, A HALF MILLION MISSION AROUND THE MOON. WE CAN LAUNCH A MISSION AROUND THE MOON THAT DOES FOR $90 MILLION BECAUSE THERE IS ALREADY ARCHITECTURE SUPPORT THERE. IN WORDS, WE DOZEN MORE SCIENCE. NOT LESS SCIENCE WHEN WE DO HUMAN EX MORE TRYINGS THE MOON. THAT IS VERY POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND REMEMBER, THE VIPER LANNER IS IN THE MACHINE AS WELL. WE CAN HAVE NUMB ROUTES MISSIONS TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON WITH HUMANS SOME OF THEM AMERICANS, SOME OF THEM WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS MAYBE SOME OF THEM COMMERCIAL INDUSTRY. MAYBE THEY ARE INTERESTED IN THE PLATINUM GROUP METAL ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. PEOPLE ARE FAMILIAR WITH RARE EARTH METALS THE CHALLENGE WITH THE EARTH WE HAVE ACTIVE GEOGY AND ACTIVE ATMOSPHERE WHICH MEANS ANYTHING IMPACTED THE EARTH BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO IS NOT TODAY WHERE IT USED TO BE. IT IS VERY TRACED AMOUNTS. WHEN YOU FIND IT AT ALL. WELL, THE MOON IS DIFFERENT. IT DUP HAVE ACTIVE GE LOCAL GIANT DOESN’T HAVE ACTIVE A ATMOSPHERE WHICH MEANS ANYTHING THAT IMPACTED THE MOON BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO IS TODAY WHERE IT WAS WELLWELLS OF YEARS AGO THAT WOULD YOU KNOW INCLUDE THE ASTEROID IMPACTS THAT ARE THOSE RARE EARTH METALS WHICH IN THIS CASE WOULD BE RARE LUNAR METALS. NOW, ARE THEY THERE IN BIG DEPOSITS, I DON’T. THEN NEITHER DES ANN ONE ELSE. LET’S GO FIND OUT. THAT IS WHAT THIS IS ALL ABOUT. EXPLORATION DISCOVERY AND SCIENCE. REMEMBER THE SCIENCE. TAKED ABOUT JUST NOW. HOW THESE ASTEROID IMPACTS FROM BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO COULD BE TODAY WHERE THEY WERE BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO. BUT THIS IS ALSO TRUE THE SUN HAS CHARGE PARTICLE KETS COMING FROM IT AND IMPACTING WITH THE MOON ALL THE TIME. BECAUSE IT DOESN’T HAVE ATMOSPHERE OF THE MOON. BY THE WAY, THOSE UB ATOMIC CHARGED PARTICLES ARE PROBABLY TODAY RIGHT WHERE FROM THEY BILLIONS YEAR AGO. THE MOON DOESN’T REPRESENT AN TAUNT TO DO ASTRO FIS UKES BUT REP ACCEPTS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DO THE TUD TUD DIF THE SUN ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. THE MOON IS REPOS TO RIFF THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM. SO WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THE MOON, I IS ABOUT PLANETARY JOINS AND THE CONCERN ABOUT THE MOON. A LOT OF JOIN INSES BELIEVE THE MOON AT ONE TIME WAS PART OF THE EARTH. AND SO WE CAN LEARN MAYBE THE EARLY EARTH BY STUDYING THE MOON. SO ALL OF THESE OPPORTUNITIES ARE AVAILABLE TO US WHEN WE GO TO THE MOON AND ULF IT ENABLED THE SCRINES DIRECTOR OF SPACE THEY WORK HAND AND GLOVE AND ALL OF US CAN DO MORE WHEN WE WORK TOGETHER. THAT IS NOT JUST TRUE OF THE DIFFERENT MISSION DIRECT IT A O ARE IT IS TRUE WHEN WE BRING WITH US OUR INTERNATIONAL AND OUR COMMERCIAL PARTNERS. THAT IS WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO BUILD AT THE MOON. REMEMBER WHY WE ARE GOING TO THE MOON. WE ARE LEARNING TO LIVE AND WORK FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME. THAT IS WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO DO. BECAUSE ULTIMATELY WHEN WE GO TO MARS, WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE THERE FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME. EARTH AND MARS ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE SUN ONCE EVERY 26 MONTHS. THAT MEANS WHEN YOU GO YOU GOT TO BE READY TO STAY, FRIENDS. SOME PEOPLE WOULD SUGGEST WE COULD DO 30 TO 90-DAY STAGE. SOME PEOPLE SUGGEST YOU GOT TO BE THERE FOR TWO YEARS. WE ARE WORK OUGHT THE ORBITAL PHYSIC ASS AND OTHER WAYS OF MAYBE COMING HOME AND THAT ARE UNIQUE WHEN YOU CAN DO A SHORT DURATION OF STAY ON MARS. WHERE WE USE VENUS AS A GRAVITY ASSIST TO COME HOME. I AM MT. SAYING WE ARE GOING TO DO THAT IN BUT IN THE REM OF WHAT COULD BE POSSIBLE. HERE IS WHAT WE ALSO KNOW. WE NEED TO GET TO MARS WE NEED TO CONTINUE TO LOOK AND FIND TO SEE IF THERE IS LIFE ON ANOTHER WORLD. THE MOON IS THE PROVING GROUND. MARS IS THE DESTINATION. WE CANNOT FORGET WHY WE ARE GOING TO THE MOON. FINALLY, THEN, I WILL OPEN IT UP FOR QUESTIONS. WHEN WE WENT TO THE MOON IN THE 196.>>, WE WENT UNDER A PROGRAM CALLED APPROXIMATELY LOW. IN THOSE DAY, ALL OF THE ASTRONAUTS CAME FROM FIGHTER PILOT ANTES PILOT BACKGROUNDS. THERE WERE NO OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN. WELL, IT SO HAPPENS THAT IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY, APOLLO HAS TWIN SISTER. HER NAME IS A THE MISS AND SHE IS THE GODDESS OF THE MOON. THIS TIME WHEN GO TO THE MOON, WE GO UNITED NATIONS THE NAME ARTIE MISS WE ARE GOING FORWARD TO THE MOON AND WE ARE GOING TO STAY BUT THIS TIME WHEN WE GO WE ALSO HAVE A VERY DIVERSE HIGHLY QUALIFIED ASTRONAUT CORE THAT INCLUDES WOMEN. THIS IS OUR GENERATION. WE ARE THE ARTEMIS ADMINISTRATION I AM THE FIRST THAT WAS NOT ALIVE WHEN WE HAD PEOPLE ON THE MOON. I WAS BORN IN 1975 OUR LAST MISSION WAS 167 2 I DON’T HAVE THAT MACHINE MEMORY WE CANNOT LET ANOTHER GENERATION GO BY WHERE WE DON’T HAVE THAT MEMORY. WE NEED TO GET TO THE MOON. WE NEED TO STAY AT THE MOON. WE NEED AS TO LEARN HOW TO LIVE AND WORK ON ANOTHER WORLD AND NEED TO GO TO MAR S THIS THE ARTEMIS GENERATION WE NEED TO OWN. IT WE NEED TO TAKE CONTROL OF IT. WE NEED TO MAKE IT HAPPEN. THANKS SO MUCH FOR HAVING ME. [APPLAUSE] WE HAVE QUESTIONS ON THE LAP TOP. WHAT IS THIS CALLED? WHAT IS IT? IF YOU WANT TO ASK QUESTIONS, HERE THIS IS WAY TO DO YOU. HOW FAR WILL MASS EMPLOY EXPERIMENTS ON THE MOON? THAT WINCE OF THE QUESTIONS. THAT’S THE FIRST QUESTION. WE ARE GOING TO DO IT RIGHT AWAY. WE’RE HOPING TO IT IN 2021. TANG WE ARE USING THE COMMERCIAL LUNAR PAYLOAD SERVICES PROGRAM WE WHERE WE’RE GOING TO THE MOON WITH SMALL PAYLOADS, SEE YOU PLIEDS, COMMERCIALLY. WE’RE NOT GOING TO PURCHASE THEM AND OPERATE THE VEHICLES WE ARE GOING TO BUY SERVICES. MANY IN THE ROOM REMEMBER THE GOOGLE LUNAR, THAT PRIZE ULTIMATE LE NOBODY WON BUT A NUMBER OF COMPANIES GOT FORMED SO WE BELIEVE HAVE CAPABLE OF GETTING US TO THE MOON. AND WE HAVE TURNED TO THOSE COMPANIES AND SAID CAN YOU GET US TO THE MOON WITH A 15 OR 20-POUND EXPERIMENT TO HELP US UNDER STAN THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. THE ANSWER WAS YES. WE HAVE NOW GONE UNDER CONTRACT WITH TWO COMPANIES THAT WE BELIEVE ARE ABLE TO DELIVER TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON IN A YEAR 2021. NOW WHEN TALK ABOUT IN STAB RESOURCES. ARE THEY GOING TO BE DOING WATER EXPERIMENTS. MAYBE. MAYBE NOT. ARE THEY GOING TO GET TO THE SOUTH POLE INMAYBE, MAYBE NOT. HERE IS WHAT WE DO KNOW. WE DO KNOW WE HEED TO GET THE MACHINE SO IT CAN DO THOSE. WE WANT TO START THAT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AM SO THEY WILL BE DOING EXPERIMENTS AND AS EARLY AS 2021 AND JUST SO WE CAN HELP CHARACTERIZE THE LIFT. OK. ANOTHER QUESTION. COULD AMERICAN COMMERCIAL ASTRONAUTS RATHER THAN GOVERNMENT NASA CREW BE USED TO MEET MANDATES TO LISTENED ON THE MOON? THE MANDATE AND TO RETURN BY 2024? THE ANSWER IS YES. ABSOLUTELILY. WHEN WE DO COMMERCIAL CREW, IN FACT, ONE OF THE COMMERCIAL CREW PROVIDERS GOING TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION IS IN FACT BOW IN AND THEY HAVE AN ASTRONAUT THAT WILL BE THE CREW ON THE FIRST TEST FLIGHT OF THE BOEING CREW CAPSULE CALLED STAR LINER THAT GOES INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. ON DAY ONE, COMMERCIAL IS GOING WITH US TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. AND REMEMBER, A WE ARE DOING NOW, WE TALKED ABOUT THE GATEWAY AND/OR BIT AROUND THE MOON AND ALL THAT IT ENABLE AS, ASTRO FIS UK, HELIO FIXES, LUNAR SWIPE, PLANETARY SCIENCE, GATEWAY WASH INTERNATIONAL PART THE, COMMERCIAL PARTNER, PEOPLE CAN BUILD APPLICATIONS FOR IT IN IN THAT INCLUDE ALL OF THE ABOVE. REMEMBER WE ARE GOING TO USE IT TO GET TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON WITH COMMERCIAL LANDERS. KI WORD, COMMERCIAL LANDERS. WE ARE NOT BUYING, OWNING, OPERATING A LANDER TO GO FROM THE GATEWAY TO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WE WILL BUY A SERVICE. THE GOAL BEING WE INTEND FOR THE COMMERCIAL PARTNERS TO GO GET CUSTOMERS THAT ARE NOT NASA SO IT IS POSSIBLE THAT EVEN ON DAY ONE, THEY COULD HAVE THEIR OWN, LIKE THE INTERS IN AAL SPACE STATION. THEY DO HAVE COMMERCIAL ASTRONAUTS. WE’RE WAITING FOR INDUSTRY TO PROPOSE TO US WHAT THEY ARE INTERESTED IN DOING. IF THEY CROWS THAT IT IS SOMETHING WEE CERTAINLY CONSIDER. LET’S SEE. DO YOU FOR SEE THE FALCON HEAVY OR STAR HELPING ACCOMPLICE THE ARTEMIS PROGRAM. WE’RE IN A SOURCE OF ELECTION PROCESS NOW SO IT IS LITTLE FOR ME TO HIGHLIGHT ONE OR THE OTHER AND SAY ONE IS A PART AND THE OTHER ONE IS NOT. BUT KNOW, WE WANT TO GO TO THE MOON WITH COMMERCIAL LANNER. AND STARSHIP OF COURSE IS A COMMERCIAL LANNER THAT WE ANTICIPATE WILL BE COMPETING IN THE PROGRAM AND DO WE KNEE. NO. CERTAINLY IT LOOKS LIKE THEY WILL BE. BUT THE ANSWER IS WE NEED COMMERCIAL PARTNERS WHETHER IT IS STARSHIP OR OTHER COMMERCIAL PARTNERS WE NEED COMMERCIAL PARTNERS. NOT JUST TO GO FROM THE GATEWAY THOUGH SURFACE OF THE MOON BUT ALSO TO DELIVER CARGO. I WOULD LIKE TO SEE A HABITATION MODULE ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. COMMERCIAL INFLATABLE. IT MAY BE. IT MAY NOT. I DON’T WANT TO PREJUDGE. I WOULD LIKE TO SEA HABITATION MODULE ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. THAT COULD BE DELIVERED COMMERCIALLY AND IN SOME OF THOSE CASES YOU CAN GO TO THE MOON AND OTHER CASE YOU WOULD USE GATEWAY TO MAKE IT HAP PEP. LOOK. THERE ARE NO PG OS OFF THIBLE. YES, I SEE THAT THAT WOULD BE VIABLE OPPORTUNITY. DO YOUR INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS INCLUDE CHINESE PARTNER. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IS PROHIB BID BY LAW FROM COOPERATING WITH CHINA IN A BILATERAL WAY. THERE IS A LOT OF! POS THAT. MAN PEOPLE IN THE ROOM KNOW WHAT THOSE ARE. HERE IS THE THING. AT NASA WE ARE WITH WILL FOLLOW THE LAW. AND WHEN WE FOLLOW THE LAW. WE WILL CONTINUE TO GET FUNDING. SHOULD WE CHOOSE TO BRACK THE LAW. GUESSES WHAT M WE’LL NOT GET FUNDING THAT IS THE ARE ALLY THE WITH LIVE UNDER. BUT HERE’S THE THING. AND I REALLY BELIEVE THIS. NASA IS INSTRUMENT OF AMERICAN POWER. NOT HARD POWER. SOFT POWER. IT IS DIPLOMATIC POWER. THE ABOUT THIS. OTHER DAY AGO THREE DAYS AGO I HELD A MEETING ABOUT THE ARTEMIS PROGRAM AND WHAT NATION WAS WANT TO JOIN US GOING TO THE MOON. AND IN THAT BILATERAL MEETING WE HAD 26 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. 26 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES SAME AND SAID WE WANT TO BE WITH YOU WHEN YOU GO THOUGH MOON. NOW WE CANNOT HAVES A ROW NOWS FROM 26 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AT THE SAME TIME. BUT CERTAINLY, WE CAN HAVE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS AND EVENTUALLY AS THIS IS SUSTAINABLE THE INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS WE WOULD TO LOVE SEE THEM ON THE MOON TOO. MAYBE NOT ON THE FIRST MISSION. MAYBE NOT ON THE SECOND MISSION BUT WE WANT THEM ON THE MOON. WE WANT TO SEE AMERICAN AS ROW NOW THES WORKING SIDE BUY SIDE WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. BUT MAN INFORM YOU HEARD THE SENTENCE VICE PRESIDENT SPEAK THE OTHER DAY. THAT YOU DONE JUST GET TO SIGN UP AND JOIN US. THIS IS ELEMENT OF NATIONAL POWER WHERE HE WANT TO SAY, OH WAY KAY, WE WAN TO YOU BE WITH US. LEER THE CONDITIONS THAT ARE NECESSARY TO JOIN. THINK THAT IS PERFECTLY APPROPRIATE TO LEAD THREE NATIONS IN THAT EFFORT. AND SO, RIGHT NOW, WE’RE PROHIBITED BY LAW FROM PARTNERING WITH CHIN INAND BILART WAY AND BUT CERTAINLY IN THE FUTURE, AND DEFENDING ON IN CONDITIONS WE WOULD BE OPEN TO THAT. BUT IT IS, IT IS NOT JUST SIGN AND YOU GET COME WITH US. HOW FAR? OK. I AM LOOKING AT THESE THAT I HAVE ALREADY ANSWERED. WHY DOES THE MOON LANDING NEED TO BE DONE BY 2024? WHAT WILL HAPPEN THE DATE IS NOT THAT? SO WE LOOKED AT THIS. WE ACTUALLY DID A PROPOSAL A BUDGET PROPOSAL THIS SAID IF NASA’S BUDGETS DON’T CHANGE EXCEPT FOR MAYBE WITH INFLATION, IF NASA’S BUDGETS DON’T CHANGE HOW DOES THAT AFFECT OUR PROGRAM? TO GO TO THE MOON. WE PUT TOGETHER A BUDGET REQUEST. WE SAID, LOOK. IF WE DO IT. WE COULD QUITE THE YEAR 2028. IF THE TEN-YEAR PROGRAM GIVEN WHERE WE WERE AT THE TIME. HERE IS WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT HISTORY. YOU GO BACK TO THE 19 90’S. WE HAD THE SPACE EXPLORATION INITIATIVE AND RETURN TO THE MOON AND TON MARS. AND IT WAS VERY EXPENSIVE. IT TOOK A LOT OF TIME. BECAUSE IT TOOK SO LONG. IT GOT CANCELED. THEN WE HAD THE FISSION I HAVE VISION IN EARLY 2,000 AND RETURN TO THE MAN ANTON MARS. THEN OF COURSE IT WAS EXPENSIVE AND TOOK A LOT OF TIME. BECAUSE IT TOOK SO LONG IT GOT CANCELED. THERE IS TWO RISKS THAT DEAL WITH AT NASA. TWO. TWO. WELL, THERE IS A LOT MORE RISKS THAN. TWO THAT I WORRY ABOUT. HOW ABOUT THAT THIS THE MOST. NUMBER ONE, IT IS TECHNICAL RISKS. I CAN TELL YOU THIS. GIVEN WHAT I KNOW ABOUT NAS AND OUR ENGINEERS AND OUR SCIENTISTS AND TECHNICIANS. NASA 3:00 AND OUR INTERNATIONAL PART PARTNERS WE CAN HANDLE THE TECHNICAL RISKS. I HAVE A ABSOLUTELY NO DOLT ABOUT OUR ABILITY TO HAN HANDLE THE TECHNICAL RISKS THERE IS ANOTHER RISKS. IT PLATES. WE USED TO HAVE JOHN CULBERSON IN THE HOUSE AND HE WOULD MAKE SURE WE GOT WHAT WE NEEDED. THAT WAS NOT ALWAYS THE CASE. IF YOU LOOK BACK IN TIME, WHEN WE DON’T HAVE PEOPLE THAT ARE CHAMPIONS ON THE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE WE RUN INTO PROBLEMS. THIS CASE, THE RISK US IS WE GO TEN YEARS WE IN CRASS THE POLITICAL RISKS IF YOU WANT TO RETIRE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. YOU GOT TO GO FASTER. WHAT IS THE GOAL INTHE GOAL IS TO GET TO THE MOON WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS AND COMMERCIAL PARTNERS IN ORDER TO DO THAT WE NEED TO GO FAST. SO I WAS GIVEN THE AS OF COURSE WON AD TO GO AS SOON AS YOU CAN GET THERE. HOW WOULD YOU DO IT. HOW MUCH WOULD IT COSTS WE CAME BACK AND APENNED THE BUDGET REQUESTION WHICH IS IS NOT A NORMAL PROCESS. THE CARE CHAIRMAN OF THE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE CAN TELL YOU. THAT NOT NORMAL PROCESS. WE WENT K ABOUT A AND ASKED FOR ADDITIONAL $1.00 BILLION FOR THE ARTEMIS PROGRAM MAINLY TO GET A HUMAN LANDING STOP THE SURFACE OF THE MOON FROM THE GATEWAY. NOW WE’LL BUY THAT COMMISSIONERLY. WE ARE NOT GOING TO OWN AND OPERATE IT. WE ARE GOING TO BUY IT COMMISSIONERLY. THAT $1 OPINION BILLION WAS NECESSARY TO REDUCE THE POLITICAL RISKS. THAT IS WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO. NOW IF WE DO THAT. REMEMBER, EVERYTHING STILL HAS TO GO VERY WELL. IN THE REALM OF WHAT IS POSSIBLE? ABSOLUTELY. IS DIFT CULT? YES. IT IS DIFFICULT. EVERYTHING HAS TO GO ACCORDING TO PLANNED TO ACHIEVE A 2024 MOON LANDING. BUT HERE IS WHAT WE KNOW. IF WE MAKE IT A LONGER PROGRAM. IT IS SUBJECT TO MORE POLITICAL RISK AND THAT IS WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO RETIRE. ALSO THE 2024 DATE IS BAWL. IS ALL ABOUT. ALSO THE 2024 DATE IS ALL ABOUT. WILL YOU MAKE SURE THERE IS ENOUGH WOMEN QUALIFIED TO GO THOUGH MOON? WE WILL MAKE SURE. TANG IF YOU LOOK AT THE CURRENT ASTRONAUT CORE. THE BRAND-NEW CLASS, THE NEWEST CLASS, CLASS GOING THROUGH TRAINING NOW, IT IS 50% WOMEN. AND I THINK THE CLASS BEFORE THAT ALSO MAYBE NOT THAT HIGH OF A PERCENTAGE BUT A GOOD AMENTS WELL. I WILL TELL YOU THIS. WE HAVE GREAT WOMEN AT NASA NOW. WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THE ASTRONAUTS THAT GOIL TO THE MOON IN 2024, IT WILL LIKELY BE ONE OF THE ASTRONAUTS THAT CURRENTLY EXISTS IN THE ASTRONAUT CORE. WE HAVE NOT SLEEKED. I GET THIS QUESTION ALL THE TIME. WHICH ONE IS IT GOING TO BE BE? I WILL TELL YOU THIS. ACCORDING TO THE PRESIDENT, THE NEXT MAN IN AND THE FIRST WOMAN ON THE MOON WILL BE AMERICAN. WE DO WANT TO GO WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS BUT I WANT TO BE CLEAR THAT IF WE ARE GOING TO MAKE THIS HAPPEN IN 2024 WE NEED HIDELY SKILLED ALREADY TRAINED AS VO NUT BE A IMAGINE THE SHE IS ALREADY IN THE ASTRONAUT CORE. BAY THE WAY, JUST BECAUSE IT IS THE NEXT MACHINE IN THE IN A THE FIRST WOMAN DOESN’T MEAN THE NEXT TWO PEOPLE. DONE THAT BOTH BE WOMEN BY THE WAY. THAT IS IMPORTANT POINT TO MAKE. LET’S SEE. WHAT MAKES YOU THINK PLUTO IS A PLANET? I THOUGHT I COVERED THAT ONE. A MULTI LAYER AT MISPER, IT HAS OCEAN, IT HAS COMPLEX ORGANIC COP POUND, IT HAS ITS OWN MOON, THIS IDEA SAW THERE TO CLEAR YOUR OWN ORBIT, YOU KNOW, THAT MEANS THAT NONE OF THE PLANETS ARE PLANETS. I AM — BAY THE WAY, I LIKE THERE BEING NINE PLANETS. HOW ABOUT THAT? DO WE HAVE PLU TOW FANS OUT THERE? ALL RIGHT. ALL RIGHT. WHAT IS THE PROCESS FOR CHOOSING WHICH HUMAN LANDER TO SMEWS WE PUT OUT WHAT WE CALL A BRD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT. THE PROCESS FOR CHOOSING THE LANDER. SO THIS IS THE CHALLENGE RIGHT WE’RE GOING TO GO FAST. WHY BECAUSE IT REDUCE POLITICAL RISKS AND WE WANT TO GO FAST PAUSE THE FASTER WE GET THE MOON THE FASTER WE GET TO MARS. ALL THE ABOVE. IT IS INCLUSIVE. SO WHEN WE THINK ABOUT HOW WE BUILD LANDERS FOR THE MON OR ANY PROJECT HANNAH SA DOES THE WAY OF DICT IS NASA SPENDS SIX MONTHS TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHAT INFORMATION WE IMMEDIATE. THEN AFTER SIX MONTHS WE PUT OUT REQUEST FOR INFORMATION. THEN WE WAIT FOR SIX MONTHS WHILE INDUSTRY RESPONSE TO THE REQUEST FOR INFORMATION THEN AFTER WE GET THAT INFORMATION WE EVALUATE THAT INFORMATION FOR SIX MONTH THEN WE PUT OUT REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS. THEN INDUSTRY AFTER SIX MONTHS WILL RESPOND TO THAT QUESTION FOR PROPOSALS THEN SPEND SIX MONTHS LOOKING AND WE DO A SOURCE SELECTION. SO TWO AND A HALF YEARS INTO THE PROGRAM. WE FINALLY GOING TO GET CON TRACK INTO WE DECIDE ON AND MAYBE. MAYBE A NUMBER THAT WE DECIDE ON. AND THEN ALL OF THE OTHERS THAT DIDN’T WIN THEY ALL PROTEST THEN THEY SUE EACH OTHER AND THEY SUE NASA AND FIVE YEARS INTO THE PROGRAM, WE ACTUALLY GET SOMEBODY ON CONTRACT WHO ACHIEVED OB JEBBIVES WE GOT TO BE OB THE MOON IN FIVE YEARS WE CAN NOT WATTAPES NAR. WE HAVE BEEN HAVING SOME SERIOUS DISCUSSIONS OF HOW WE DO THIS AND GO THIS TIME WE’RE GOING IN A DIFFERENT WAY. WE’RE NOT GOING TO CREATE THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF REQUIREMENTS AND IN HE IS SES DE.>>ING THE SPACECRAFT AND THE REQUIREMENT PROCESS AND TURN TO PRIVATE INDUSTRY TO GET THEIR FEEDBACK AND WANT THEM TO TELL US HOW THEY ARE GOING TAKE OUR ASTRONAUTS TO THE MOON. THAT IS WHY WE HAVE WHAT WE CALL THE PRAD AGENCY. I WILL TELL YOU, THAT WE HAVE AMAZING CONTRACTORS THAT ARE ALREADY SIGNING UP AND MORE THAT WILL BE SIGNING UP TO COMPETE. AS FAR AS GIVING ANY IN SIGHT INTO WHAT THAT COMPETITION WILL LOOK LIKE. AND WHO WILL WIN I CANNOT SAY. WE ARE VERY EXCITED ABOUT THE FACT HAG WE HAVE MANY, MANY INTERESTED PARTIES IN BEING PART OF THAT. LET’S SEE. SUN HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION ABOUT HUMAN KIND AS A WHOLE? ABSOLUTELY. WHEN WE WENT TO THE MOON, IT WAS HUMANITY GOING TO THE MOON. WAS IT IMPORTANT THAT THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA LET IT? I THINK SO. THERE WAS GREAT POWER COMPETITION UNDERWAY AT THE TIME. IT WAS THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE SOVIET UNION AND I THINK IT WAS IMPORTANT THAT THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA WON THAT SPACE RACE. NOW TO BE CLEAR. WITHOUT THAT GREAT POWER COMPETITION. YOU WOULDN’T HAVE HAD SPUTNIK. YOU WON A HAVE HAD THE FIRST HUMAN IN SPACE. THE FIRST PERSON TO ORBIT THE EARTH. SO THAT GREAT POWER COMPETITION ACTUALLY ENABLED OR I SHOULD SAY IT DROVE US TO SPACE EXPLORATION. FIRST TIME AT SPACE STATION TAWA INTERNATIONAL IN NATURE. SO THAT DROVE US TO A POSITION WHERE WE WERE PARTNERING. LOOK. COMPETITION IS A DRIVER, COOPERATION IS ENABLER NOW WE HAVE BEEN, LOOK, WE WENT FROM THE APOLLO, THE ALOLO SOYUZ PROGRAM OR GO TO RUSSIA SOYUZ APOLLO PROGRAM IF YOU GO THAT PROGRAM WHICH WAS STARTED WELL BEFORE THAT TO THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM. AMANDA THE SPACE SHUTTLE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. THEN YOU GO TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. SO YOU GO BACK TO PARTNERSHIP GOES BACK TO 1965. DOES IT MATTER? IN MY VIEW, IT DOES MATTER. DO WE GO TOGETHER? ABSOLUTELY. AND BY THE WAY, DIFFERENT COUNTRIES CAN LEAD ON DIFFERENT THINGS. THERE IS NOTHING WRONG WITH THAT. IF YOU ARE COUNTRY OUT THERE AND WANT TO LEAD ON SOMETHING AND WANTS THE UNITED STATES TO BE A PARTNER WE ARE ALL ABOUT THAT. WASN’T TO BE A PARTNER OF A LOT OF MIGHTSES AS WELL. I WOULD SAY IF YOU LOOK FORWARD, THERE IS DIFFERENT COUNTRIES TAKING DIFFERENT LEADS I WILL TELL YOU WHERE THE UNITED STATES WILL LEAD. WE WILL LEAD A COALITION OF NATIONS IN SUSTAINABLE RETURN TO THE MOON. BY THE WAY BECAUSE WE’RE DOING THAT YOU KNOW, YOU LOOK AT THE BUDGET OUR NASA BUDGET 21.5 BILLION ANNUALLY IT MADE SENSE. AND THEY WANT THE UNITED STATES TO BE A PARTNER. WE ARE FOR THAT, TOO. YEAH. WE ALL GO TOGETHER. THEN THE SAME TIME DIFFERENT NATIONS CAN LEAD ON THINGS. I GOT TWO MINUTES LEFT. WILL CLOSE IT OUT HERE. WOULD THERE BE TUNE FORCE VENUS SCIENCE PRF TY ASSIST ASSOCIATED WITH THE MARS SNIGS.>>THAT IS WAY OUT THERE. I WOULD HAIB DIN YES. WE’RE WELL NOTE IT FLY BUY ANOTHER PLANET. THAT IS JUST A MATTER OF FACT. AND OF COURSE WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT VENUS HELPS US INFORM ABOUT OUR OWN PLANET. WHAT WE LEARN ABOUT MARS HELPS US KNOW WHO OUR OWN PLANET AS WELL. WE KNOW MARS USED TO HAVE ACTIVE GEOLOGY OR I SHOULD SAY ACTIVES A NOT FER WITH THE OCEAN THE CORE OF MARS POOLED AND WENT FROM MULT IN TO BEING SOLID AND WHEN THAT HAPPENED IT LOST THE FEAR AND ALL OF THE SUDDEN WE DON’T HAVE OCEAN BECAUSE WITHOUT THAT. WITHOUT AT OFFICER THE RAD FRIGS THE SUN AND DEEP SPACE DRIED UP MAR AND LOOKS BARREN TODAY. THESE ARE THINGS THAT INFORM US. PLANETARY SCIENCE I INFORMS YOU. WHAT IS HAPPENING OUR PLANET AS OUR OWN PLANET CHANGES. I AM NOT SUG GES WE ARE GOING TO LOSE. ALL THE REPORTER HERE DON’T REMEMBER THAT. YEAH. NEED TO GET SCIENCE FROM ALL THE PLANET AND THERE IS OPPORTUNITIES TOES DO THAT AND IN THE FUTURE REMEMBER, IN THE FUTURE, AND SAID IT EARLIER. THE MOON IS THE PROOFING GROUND MARS IS THE DESTINATION. WE CAN GO PEYON MARS. THERE IS TUNES BE BEYOND MARS. AND CERTAINLY WE WANT TO GO BEYOND MARS. THE ANSWER IS YES. WE ARE GOING TO GET SCIENCE FROM THE MACHINE PLANETS I WANT TO GO CLOSEST OUT. A MINUTE MAYBE OR 10:00 AND END BY SAYING THIS. NUMBER ONE, THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE FOR PUBLIC DAY AT THE IAC. IT MEANS THAT YOU COMMITTED TO WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO ACHIEVE AND INTERESTED IN SPACE EXPLORATION AND WE WANT TO GO TO THE MOON AND WE WANT TO GO TEENBLY. GAIN I CANNOT SAY THIS. STRONGLY ENOUGH, I AM THE FIRSTS IN AD MIN STRITTOR THIS DOESN’T HAVE A MEMORY OF WHERE THEY WERE WHEN NEIL ARMSTRONG AND BUZZ ALDRIN LANDED ON THE MOON. I DON’T HAVE THAT MEMORY. I WASN’T THERE. WAY WASN’T THERE WHEN THE LAST ASTRONAUT THAT WAS ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. WE HAVEAR N OPPORTUNITY HERE AS THE ARTEMIS GENERATION TO RESET THE STAN DARTS THE DN STARRED NEEDS TO BE NOT ONLY A PERMANENT HUMAN PRESENCE IN LOW EARTH ORBIT BUT A HUMAN PRESENCE ON AROUND THE MOON AND WE NEED A HUMAN PRESENCE GOING ALL THE WAY TO MARS THAT IS OBJECTIVE. THIS GENERATION, THE ARTEMIS GENERATION NEEDS TO STEP UP UP O THE PLATE AND DEMAND IT THIS TIME WHEN WE GO THOUGH MOON AND MARS WE ARE GOING WITH A DIVERSE HIGHLY QUALIFIED ASTRONAUT CORE THAN YOU INCLUDES WOMEN AND WE ARE GOING UNDER THE NAME OF THE TWIN SISTER OF APOLLO, HER NAME IS A THE MISS AND SHE WAS THE GODDESS OF THE MOON THANK SO YOU MUCH FOR BEING INTERESTED IN
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NASA. THANK YOU

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