How Exactly Is the Human Body Organized?

How Exactly Is the Human Body Organized?

The human body is amazing, a symphony of bones,
muscles, cells, organs, liquids and an incomprehensible number of chemical reactions, all working
together simultaneously to keep us moving, breathing and well living. And we think learning
about all these details, big and small, is fascinating. So we put together this new series
for you. We’re calling it Human, a learning playlist dedicated to everything that makes
us us, covering all the basics of anatomy and physiology that we could fit into one
playlist. Now, even though we can’t teach you everything about the body in just a few
videos, the goal is to teach you enough core concepts so that you can feel more informed
when reading news in your social feed, talking to your doctors or even sitting down to take
your midterms. Because the cool thing about studying the human body is that everyone has
one, so it’s relevant to literally everyone. Unless you’re a ghost. In that case, I guess
not. If you are a ghost, let us know in the comments. My name is Patrick and I’m
going to be your host for this series. I studied multiple branches of science having to do
with the human body before becoming a teacher and science writer, so I’m very excited
to nerd out about the body with you. We’ll talk about blood and the immune system and
hormones and stem cells, just to name a few of the topics. Plus, there’s so much cool
research happening right now that uses these basic concepts, and we’ll talk about that,
too. Before we get too into the weeds of any one topic, we’re going to need some background
info. There are multiple branches of science dedicated to studying something about the
body — but a lot of them focus on what happens when things go wrong. Studying disease is
interesting, but we’ve already got an entire separate series for that called Sick which
you can go watch. In this series, we’ll focus on anatomy, or the study of
shape and stuff of the body, and physiology, the study of all the processes that happen
within it. Anatomy is form, physiology is function. And form influences function at
very small and very big levels. To see how, it’s helpful to organize all of biology
into a hierarchy in something called biological organization. It’s a useful way of organizing
tiny things like cells into larger groups, but it also lets us picture bigger things
like bodies as a collection of organ systems. Over the course of this video, we’ll take a look
at the integumentary system because it provides a great example of this hierarchy. To start
with, we’re all made of matter at the most basic level. This includes all the atoms and
molecules that combine together to make the membranes of our cells, the salt in our sweat,
or the neurotransmitters that travel between neurons. And when we parse all the matter
that makes up skin, we find all kinds of lipids, minerals and proteins that assemble into the
structures that make your skin tough but flexible. And water. We’ve got so much water in our
bodies. Those chemicals combine to form the different parts of cells, the smallest living
thing on the hierarchy. Literally the smallest unit you can point to and say “this is alive”.
Now, there are a few generally agreed upon criteria on what it means to be alive: the
thing needs to be able to reproduce, grow, respond to its environment, use energy, have
some kind of organization to its body, and maintain an internal balance called homeostasis.
It doesn’t matter if we’re talking about a skin cell or muscle cell or a single celled
organism like an amoeba. To be considered alive, you need to meet those qualifications
for life. And even at this tiny cellular level, we can see form influence function first hand.
Again, take our skin example — it has multiple types of cells, but they all serve different
purposes. Check this out. All those hairs sticking out of your arms, eyebrows, or nose,
are made by specialized cells called keratinocytes, cells that crank out the keratin that forms
hair. And your skin’s color comes from the pigment melanin, made by other specialized
cells called melanocytes. But the real stars of the integumentary system are the layers
of epithelial cells, a cell type that comes together to form tough yet dynamic borders
between what’s inside or outside of your body. Those keratinocytes in your skin? They’re
a type of epithelial cell. But if you could take a Q-tip and grab some cells from the
lining of your stomach, those are also epithelial cells. This is where we see form influence
function again. Epithelial cells typically make up borders or walls, protecting us from
different types of harm like radiation, chemicals, or bacteria. And just like building a physical
wall, multiple layers of material tend to be stronger than a single layer. And when
any type of cell, epithelial or not, groups together like this to do a common job, they
form the next unit on the hierarchy chart: tissues. There are four main types of tissue:
epithelial tissue like your skin, muscle tissue in your heart and skeletal muscles, connective
tissue like your ligaments, and nervous tissue like, you guessed it, your nerves. We’ll
go into specific types of tissues in later episodes, but for now, start thinking about
tissues as groups of cells. Now, clearly with multiple types of cells we can get multiple
types of tissues. And when different tissues combine to do a common job, you get organs,
the next step on the hierarchy. You’re familiar with some of the big internal organs: liver,
kidneys, intestines. But the skin, the example we’ve been using, is itself an organ.
Because it’s not just a protective layer. Like those other organs, it has different
tissues combining to do one job. The epidermis is the outermost layer, that physical wall
we mentioned before. But underneath that is the dermis, where you’ll find the tougher
connective tissue to make your skin even stronger, but also more specialized tissues like nerves,
sweat glands, and hair follicles. Even deeper than that you’ll find the hypodermis layer
which stores a little bit of fat. So, even though it looks pretty similar from your head
to your toes, it features multiple tissue types to function as a dynamic organ. And
when organs work together with other organs, they form organ systems, which are exactly
what they sound like, functionally similar organs that have a common job. Like how your
integumentary system is so much more than just skin. It’s also the glands, nerves,
fat and muscles under the skin that you don’t see. Working together, this is one of the
systems that helps keep your body in a livable temperature, protects your squishier internals
from harm, and helps us interact with the world via touch. Now, that means at some point
our integumentary system needs to talk to our nervous system to interpret all of those
signals. But in reality, every system interacts with every other system in your body to, you
know, stay alive. Like our endocrine system, or hormones, works closely with our reproductive
systems, and our digestive system works closely with our urinary system to get rid of waste. That’s
like the number one thing it does. Either way, all of your organ systems get wrapped
up into one, unique individual body, or organism, the last unit on our hierarchy. At this point,
we’re talking about bodies that can eat tacos, and pet puppies, and binge watch the
entire Lord of the Rings trilogy all at the same time. Not that I have. Just saying you
could. Thanks so much for watching this episode of Seeker Human. We’re going to be talking
about a lot of cool stuff this series so make sure to keep coming back to Seeker, we’ll
see you next time.

100 thoughts on “How Exactly Is the Human Body Organized?

  1. Try to use the best soft in the world to do medical vizualizations, Cinema 4D

  2. "How Exactly is the human body organized?" Still cant cure cancer…. sure you guys know all about the human body. gtfo.

  3. I think it is too much information in a very short video which makes it a little confusing and hard to process at once, except that great video and a exceptionally good channel 👍

  4. i happen to be a ghost…i also happen to know what YOU had for dinner last night… you didnt know it but i was there to….

  5. Ok Patrick, I'm not a ghost and I'm from Italy. I'm very intrested in this series but my english is not that good … so please please please speak slowly and as simple as you can, reduce slang american and don't chew your words. A lot of people around the world has the same problem I have.

    And about the format, I suggest you to keep your image in a liitle pic at the right top and leave the other images and the footprints to occupy the whole screen and still for longer time. This is tipically the best way to make understandable the point.

    Thanx a lot for your effort.

  6. Seeker is really cool and interesting channel… There name 'seeker' is really the way they give a really really great information….. Loved it like anything 🤘😍💪

  7. As a biology undergrad student, am happy to see this type of content from seeker. Understanding the human body requires deep efforts and explaining in layman terms is the biggest challenge. I hope seeker continues to make such kind of videos which could help people learn more about the basic human body.

  8. Remember when men actually sounded like MEN? Why do almost every single male hosting YouTube science-y videos talk like women? Ugh. Toxic Feminism is spreading like Coronavirus

  9. As a registered nurse this is fun to watch, but I still think Crash Course Anatomy and Physiology really takes the cake for anyone who is actively studying A+P and wants a birds eye view of every body system.

  10. Excellent. Literally fulfilling the promise of the internet. Thank you all for your indescribable generosity in bringing this knowledge to us all.

  11. Who gives a Shit … it just works… look out of a fkn… window for fks.. sake stop 🛑 trying to fk. Around with the world 🌎 look at the tyranny that stalks our world… research how much shit is in our food ; water and the very breath of life ITSELF… did you understand me… science 🧬 🧫 🧪 is fkn. Everyone about… 🛑 the final days of this planet 🌏 are almost here… BECAUSE OF FKN.. SO CALLED SCIENTISTS…. all the universities research what their paymasters tell them… He who Pays the Piper… CALLS THE TUNE… you fkn.. GOON … stop 🛑 pissin with OUR WORLD not yours or theirs to play God with or Russian Roulette with our ecosystem and all life itself is now endangered…. get a free pass to the future will ya… not a fkn. Chance… now or ever

  12. Since mitochondria have their own DNA and are sub-cellular, would they be considered alive or not? Or are they cells by this definition? especially as a symbiotic organism.

  13. This reminds me of high school biology, in a good way. Curious to see how in depth this series goes. I wonder if it will be completely basic, which is fine, or get into greater detail, such as explaining tissues like pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium, for example. Best of luck on this Seeker series.

  14. This has shaken my understanding of me😵

    Does this mean that i am not just me but a collection of many living individuals?😮
    Damn i am so self centric😄


  16. This is amazing. It is nice to see that despite all the bull-shit content that the vast majority wants to watch; there are a few good channels sharing interesting knowledge. Thank you.

  17. It’s great series.. thanks to seeker.. I’ve a little recommendation that I personally felt need to be fixed, & that’s the introduction of schematic diagrams. Whenever it’s time to introduction to such type of diagram please keep the picture in the video tab constantly & not as a sneak peek.. it helps mind to read and grab the data more quickly and also help to compare and contrast. This is just my personal opinion from my experience.

  18. Just want to point out
    From what I learned recently in school, in the hierarchy of biological organisation, from small molecules to the biosphere, there's what's called Organelles that comes before cells.
    (Molecules < Organelles < Cells < Tissues < Organs and systems < Organisms < Populations < Biological communities < Ecosystems < Biosphere)
    Organelles are what makes a cell fonction.

  19. Please do more of this for the rest of "sciences" , please, i think is fundamental to understand core concepts of science

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