Improving Animal Welfare and Communication with the Public

Improving Animal Welfare and Communication with the Public


GOOD EVENING. MY NAME IS RONNIE GREEN AND I HAVE THE PLEASURE OF SERVING AS THE VICE CHANCELLOR OF THE INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES HERE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA. AND WELCOME TO EAST CAMPUS AND TO HARDEN HALL THIS EVENING. WE DO HAVE AN OVERFLOW CAPACITY CROWD HERE IN THE AUDITORIUM AS YOU CAN SEE AND JUST SO EVERYONE KNOWS, THERE ARE OVERFLOW ROOMS BOTH IN THIS BUILDING AS WILL AS IN THE QUILT CENTER DIRECTLY ACROSS THE STREET WHERE THERE ARE ABOUT THIS MANY PEOPLE THERE AS WELL, SO WE’RE VERY GRATIFIED TO HAVE A WONDERFUL CROWD TONIGHT AND THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE FOR THIS LECTURE. THE HEUERMANN LECTURES IS AN EVENT THAT WE STARTED HERE AT IANR LAST YEAR. THIS IS OUR SECOND ACADEMIC YEAR WHERE WE HAVE BROUGHT WORLD AUTHORITIES DEALING WITH FOOD SECURITY, WATER SECURITY NATURAL RESOURCE SECURITY TO OUR CAMPUS. THESE ARE THE KEY ISSUES THAT WE SEE OURSELVES CHARGED WITH AT THE INSTITUTE AND THE HEUERMANN LECTURES HAVE ENABLED US TO BRING PEOPLE TO OUR CAMPUS FOR OUR STUDENTS FOR OUR STAKEHOLDERS, FOR OUR FACULTY AND STAFF IN THE GREATER COMMUNITY TO ENGAGE IN THESE DISCUSSIONS WITH US AS WE THINK ABOUT FEEDING A GROWING WORLD THE NEXT FORTY YEARS AHEAD OF US. THOSE LECTURES WERE ENABLED BY A GIFT TO THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA FOUNDATION ABOUT TWO YEARS AGO BY KEITH AND NORMA HEUERMANN LONGTIME AGRICULTURISTS IN THE STATE OF NEBRASKA INVOLVED IN BOTH THE FARMING BUSINESS AND THE POPCORN BREEDING BUSINESS. WE’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’M AN ANIMAL SCIENTISTS BY TRADE MYSELF. I’VE HAD THE PLEASURE OF GROWING UP IN THE BEEF INDUSTRY AND WORKING AROUND THE BEEF INDUSTRY THROUGHOUT MY OWN CAREER AND HAD THE PLEASURE OF SERVING ON THE FACULTY AT COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EARLIER IN MY CAREER WITH DR. GRANDIN AND BE ABLE TO DO RESEARCH WORK WITH HER. SHE’S TRULY AN AMAZING PERSON I KNOW MANY OF YOU KNOW MUCH ABOUT HER STORY AS A HIGH FUNCTIONING AUTISTIC PERSON WHO WASN’T ABLE TO SPEAK AT THE AGE OF TWO AND YET HAS USED THAT EXPERIENCE AND HER OWN CAPACITY TO THINK ABOUT HOW TO IMPROVE ANIMAL CARE HOW TO BUILD NEW ANIMAL HANDLING SYSTEMS THAT IMPROVE THE STEWARDSHIP OF OUR LIVESTOCK IN ANIMAL AGRICULTURE. IT’S ESTIMATED THAT HALF OF THE CATTLE IN NORTH AMERICA ARE TOUCHED DIRECTLY BY LIVESTOCK HANDLING SYSTEMS THAT DOCTOR GRANDIN HAS DESIGNED THROUGH HER GRANDIN LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS ENTERPRISE THAT SHE’S BEEN INVOLVED WITH. SHE WENT TO COLORADO STATE AS A FACULTY MEMBER AND A PARTIAL APPOINTMENT THERE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCES IN THE EARLY NINETEEN NINETIES AND HAS BEEN THERE SINCE. CURRENTLY SHE SERVES IN A FIFTY PERCENT FACULTY APPOINTMENT IN THAT DEPARTMENT AS AN ANIMAL BEHAVIORIST AND ETHOLOGIST STUDYING ANIMAL BEHAVIOR FOR THE GOOD OF THE ANIMAL AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIES AND THE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES THAT SUPPORT THEM. SHE HAS A LONG LIST OF AWARDS. I WON’T SAY THOSE TO YOU TONIGHT. YOU HAVE HEARD ABOUT SOME OF THEM, CAPPED BY CAPTURING OF HER LIFE IN JUST THE LAST FEW YEARS IS AN HBO MINISERIES THAT MANY OF YOU MIGHT HAVE SEEN THAT WON A NUMBER OF EMMY AWARDS AND A GOLDEN GLOBE AWARD I WAS KIDDING HER AT LAUNCH TODAY WHETHER SHE WATCHED THE GOLDEN GLOBES WHEN EVER THAT WAS A COUPLE OF NIGHTS AGO TO SEE IF CLAIRE DANES WHO PORTRAYED HERE WON YET ANOTHER AWARD FOR HER RECENT WORK SO TEMPLE IS COMING TO US TONIGHT ABOUT IMPROVING COMMUNICATION IN ANIMAL WELFARE AND WE’RE LOOKING FORWARD TO HER COMMENTS AND WHAT SHE HAS TO SAY TO US SO PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING TO THE STAGE DR. TEMPLE GRANDIN GRANDIN: IT IS REALLY GREAT TO BE HERE CAN EVERYBODY HEAR ME ON THIS MIC OK I WANT TO MAKE SURE YOU CAN HEAR ME AND I’VE BEEN WORKING IN ANIMAL HANDLING EVER SINCE THE EARLY SEVENTIES AND THINGS HAVE REALLY IMPROVED IN ANIMAL HANDLING IN THE SEVENTIES AND EIGHTIES CATTLE HANDLING WAS TERRIBLE ABSOLUTELY TERRIBLE ELECTRIC PROD ON EVERY SINGLE CATTLE RAMMING THEM AGAINST CHUTES AND EVERYTHING ELSE THAT IS ONE OF THE THINGS THAT HAS GOTTEN A LOT BETTER IT HAS GOTTEN A LOT BETTER IN TERMS OF EQUIPMENT BUT IT HAS ALSO GOTTEN A LOT BETTER IN TERMS OF MANAGEMENT ONE OF THE THINGS I’VE LEARNED IS PEOPLE WANT THE THING MORE THAN THEY WANT THE MANAGEMENT BECAUSE EVEN BACK IN THE SEVENTIES I WAS SELLING PEOPLE REALLY NICE SYSTEMS I WAS PUTTING THEM IN AND I GET THIS NICE SYSTEM ALL STARTED UP AND ONLY HALF MY CLIENTS WOULD OPERATE IT CORRECTLY TODAY NOW TODAY MOST PEOPLE ARE THE NATIONAL CATTLEMAN’S BEEF ASSOCIATION HAS REALLY PROMOTED BEEF QUALITY ASSURANCE, THE IMPORTANCE OF LOW-STRESS HANDLING THAT IS THE REAL BIG BRIGHT SPOT IN ANIMAL WELFARE AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT FRUSTRATES ME IS WE’VE IMPROVED A LOT OF THESE THINGS AND NOBODY KNOWS ABOUT IT. THIS GETS INTO COMMUNICATING WITH THE PUBLIC BECAUSE WHEN I WENT OUT TO HOLLYWOOD AND I TALKED TO THE HOLLYWOOD PRESS. THEY WERE JUST CURIOUS. THEY ASKED QUESTIONS LIKE WHAT’S A FEEDLOT. I’M NOT KIDDING. THEY DIDN’T KNOW WHAT A FEEDLOT WAS. THEY HAD ABSOLUTELY NO IDEA WHAT A FEEDLOT WAS. WELL I’VE GOT A VIDEO UP ON THE INTERNET NOW, IT’S A BEEF PLANT VIDEO TOUR WITH TEMPLE GRANDIN THAT SHOWS HOW A BEEF PLANT WORKS AND IT SHOWS HOW IT ALL WORKS. WE NEED TO START SHOWING THINGS. ALL RIGHT LETS STARTING TALKING A LITTLE BIT ABOUT ANIMAL HANDLING BECAUSE THAT’S MY SUBJECT AND THIS IS THE BRIGHT SPOT IN ANIMAL WELFARE AND I WISH MORE PEOPLE KNEW ABOUT THE GOOD THINGS THAT ARE GOING ON IN ANIMAL HANDLING. BECAUSE YOU GET ON U-TUBE AND THERE’S VIDEOS SHOWING GATE RODS BEING USED ON PIGS TO BEAT THEM UP CATTLE BEING POKED AT WITH PITCH FORKS AND THINGS LIKE THAT. AND THERE ARE SOME ACTIVISTS GROUPS THAT IMPLY THAT IS HOW MOST PEOPLE HANDLE THEIR CATTLE OR PIGS. THAT IS SIMPLY NOT TRUE BECAUSE THAT WOULD BE LIKE SAYING WELL EVERYBODY DRIVES DRUNK YOU GO OUT AND GET A BUNCH OF TERRIBLE PICTURES OF DRUNKEN DRIVING AND THEN SAYING THAT’S HOW EVERYBODY DRIVES. WELL THAT’S SIMPLY NOT TRUE BECAUSE WHAT I’VE SEEN IN A FORTY YEAR CAREER IN ANIMAL HANDLING IS WHEN I FIRST STARTED, MAYBE TEN OR TWENTY PERCENT OF THE PEOPLE DID A DECENT JOB OF HANDLING CATTLE, NOW IT IS PROBABLY EIGHTY PERCENT THAT IS EXPANDED AND THERE IS STILL A BOTTOM TEN PERCENT THAT IS BAD THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE THAT SHOULDN’T BE HANDLING LIVESTOCK. LET’S TALK ABOUT SOME BASIC PRINCIPALS ABOUT ANIMAL HANDLING BECAUSE THAT IS THE THING I REALLY LIKE TO TALK ABOUT. CALM CATTLE, CALM PIGS THEY ARE EASIER TO HANDLE. WHEN ANIMALS GET ALL FEARFUL, AND YES FEAR IS A PROPER SCIENTIFIC WORD, THEY GET HARDER TO HANDLE. THEY STICK TOGETHER LIKE GLUE AND IT TAKES HALF AN HOUR FOR THEM TO CALM BACK DOWN. SO DON’T GET THE ANIMALS ALL UPSET IN THE FIRST PLACE CALM DOWN. NO YELLING AND SCREAMING. THIS IS AN AREA WHERE PEOPLE ARE GETTING A WHOLE LOT BETTER. IF I GO INTO THE MEAT PLANTS NOW IT IS QUIET LIKE CHURCH. THERE USED TO BE YELLING AND SCREAMING AND ARM WAVING WHISTLING THAT’S GOTTEN STOPPED. NOW HOW CAN YOU TELL THAT ANIMALS ARE CALM WHEN YOU ARE HANDLING THEM WELL THEY ARE GOING TO HAVE NICE SOFT BROWN EYES. WHEN THE ANIMAL GETS UPSET THE EYES START BUGGING OUT AND YOU SEE THE WHITES OF THEIR EYES THERE IS ACTUAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH THAT SHOWS WHEN THE WHITES IN THE EYES ARE SHOWING THE ANIMAL IS GETTING SCARED SO HOW DID SCIENTISTS PROVE THAT HAD TO DO WITH FEAR BECAUSE IF YOU GIVE THEM VALIUM THEN THEY DON’T GET SCARED, AND I REALIZE IT IS TOTALLY ILLEGAL, YOU CAN’T GIVE CATTLE VALIUM BUT WHAT THEY DID IT PROVED THE CONCEPT THAT WHEN YOU SEE THE WHITES OF THEIR EYES, YOU SEE THE TAIL SWITCHING, THINGS LIKE THAT YOU’VE GOT AN ANIMAL THAT IS GETTING UPSET AND IN TRAINING PEOPLE WORKING WITH ANIMALS THEY NEED TO BE LEARNING SOME OF THE ANIMAL’S POSTURES TAIL SWITCHING IN CATTLE IS NOT A GOOD THING THAT IS A WARNING THAT THEY ARE GETTING READY TO KICK YOU OR SOME OTHER BAD THING HEADS UP, EARS PINNED BACK I DO A LOT OF TALKS WITH ANIMAL SCIENCE STUDENTS, A LOT OF TALKS TO VETERINARY STUDENTS AND I TALK ABOUT YOU NEED TO READ THE POSTURES OF THE ANIMAL NOW HERE’S A LITTLE CHAIN HANGING DOWN IN A CHUTE I’VE BEEN TALKING ABOUT THE NEED TO GET RID OF THINGS LIKE THIS FOR FORTY YEARS. WHY DO I HAVE TO KEEP TALKING ABOUT THIS KIND OF STUFF BECAUSE PEOPLE DON’T TAKE THEM OUT AND YOU MIGHT WONDER WHAT DID AUTISM HAVE TO DO WITH HELPING ME WITH ANIMAL HANDLING I’M AN EXTREME VISUAL THINKER AND WHEN I WAS IN MY TWENTIES AND THIRTIES I THOUGHT EVERYBODY THOUGHT IN PICTURES THE WAY I THINK INCIDENTALLY MY BOOK, THINKING IN PICTURES, IS FOR SALE AFTERWARDS, I WOULD BE HAPPY TO SIGN IT FOR YOU REAL HAPPY TO DO THAT. AND I THOUGHT EVERYBODY THOUGHT THE WAY I THOUGHT NO THAT’S NOT TRUE. MOST PEOPLE…VISUAL THINKING IS KIND OF A CONTINUUM BUT ANIMALS NOTICE VISUAL DETAILS, THEY NOTICE DETAILS WE TEND TO NOT NOTICE. AND YOU CAN HAVE A CHAIN HANGING DOWN IN A CHUTE AND THEY ARE NOT GOING TO GO UP THAT CHUTE. OK, HERE YOU’VE GOT CHANGES IN THE FLOORING. YOU HAVE PIGS GOING FROM A CONCRETE FLOOR TO PLASTIC FLOOR GIVE THE LEAD ANIMAL A CHANCE TO STOP AND TAKE A LOOK. AND ONCE THE LEAD ANIMAL CROSSES THE OTHER ANIMALS WILL CROSS. OR YOU’VE GOT A DRAIN ACROSS THERE NOW IF YOU HAVE A DAIRY SITUATION, WELL THE OLD CALVES WILL WALK RIGHT OVER THE DRAIN BUT THE NEW HEIFER SHE IS GOING TO STOP. GIVE HER..HER CHANCE TO STOP AND LOOK AT IT. AND IT IS REALLY IMPORTANT THAT AN ANIMAL’S FIRST EXPERIENCE WITH SOMETHING NEW, LIKE A HORSE TRAILER GOING THROUGH THE CORRALS IN A SQUEEZE CHUTE, IS A GOOD FIRST EXPERIENCE. THERE HAVE BEEN QUITE A FEW PEOPLE NOW THAT ADVOCATE THAT WALKING YOUR HEIFERS THROUGH THE CORRALS SOMETIMES YOU GOT TO DO SOME THINGS THAT HURT, BUT LET’S NOT LET IT BE THE FIRST EXPERIENCE MAKE THOSE FIRST EXPERIENCES TO THOSE CORRALS POSITIVE HERE IS A REFLECTION. THEY ARE VERY SENSITIVE TO REFLECTIONS. AND YOU GET TIME-OF-DAY AFFECTS. ANIMALS TEND TO GO FROM A DARK PLACE TO A LIGHT PLACE BUT THEY ARE NOT GOING TO GO INTO BLINDING, BLINDING LIGHT LIKE LOOKING INTO THE SUN SO IF YOU ARE TRYING TO LOAD THE TRUCK AND THE SUN IS COMING UP OVER THE TOP OF THE TRUCK NO THEY ARE NOT GOING TO GO IN. MAYBE WAIT FOR ANOTHER TWO HOURS. IF YOU’RE IN AN INDOOR FACILITY SUCH AS A MEAT PLANT OR SLAUGTHER PLANT I WON’T CALL THEM HARVEST FACILITIES I THINK THAT’S SILLY WHEN I WENT OUT TO HOLLYWOOD IT WAS SLAUGHTER PLANT IF I WANT TO SANITIZE IT SOME I’LL CALL IT MEAT PLANT BUT I’M NOT GOING TO CALL IT THE HARVEST FACILITY THAT IS FOR GRAIN NOW YOU TAKE THAT DOWN TO THE GRAIN ELEVATOR THAT IS NOT SOMETHING YOU DO WITH BEEF OK SO I WENT INTO AN INDOOR FACILITY AND I GOT A REFLECTION ON THE FLOOR AND THE ANIMAL’S REFUSE TO GO UP THE CHUTE AND I MOVED SOME LIGHTS AND THEN THEY’LL GO RIGHT UP THE CHUTE OR ADD SOME LIGHTS IT IS AMAZING WHAT YOU CAN DO WITH LIGHTS IT IS AMAZING HOW YOU CAN CONTROL WHAT THEY SEE YOU PUT A SOLID SIDE UP IN JUST THE RIGHT PLACE SO THEY DON’T SEE THE TRUCKS GOING BY THEN THEY ARE GOING TO MOVE SO THE FIRST WORK I EVER DID WITH LIVESTOCK IS I GOT DOWN IN THE CHUTES TO SEE WHAT THE CATTLE WERE SEEING PEOPLE THOUGHT THAT WAS CRAZY BACK IN THE EARLY SEVENTIES WELL YOU SEE ON A SUNNY DAY I GOT SHADOWS CLOUDY DAY I WON’T HAVE THE SHADOWS THEY CAN SEE PEOPLE I’VE EITHER GO TO PUT UP A SOLID SIDE OR GET THE PEOPLE AWAY FROM IT AND THE MOST IMPORTANT PART TO COVER IS THE OUTER PERIMETER THAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART TO COVER AND I HAVE A BOOK CALLED HUMAN LIVESTOCK HANDLING UNFORTUNATELY THE BOOKS DIDN’T GET SHIPPED IN BUT THEY HAVE A DISPLAY COPY OUT THERE THAT’S GOT ALL MY CATTLE HANDLING STUFF IN IT CATTLE CORRAL THINGS IT’S A BOOK AIMED AT RANCHERS AND I WOULD BE MORE THAN HAPPY TO TAKE ORDERS FOR IT I JUST WANT TO SHOW YOU SOME OTHER EXAMPLES OF THINGS THAT CAN SPOOK ANIMALS LOOK AT HOW THOSE ANIMALS ARE AVOIDING WALKING ON THE SUNBEAM I WANT TO GET YOU AWARE OF THAT SORT OF THING YOU’RE AT THE PIG FARM YOU’VE GOT SHADOWS, LOOK AT HOW THE STRUTS IN THE WINDOW ARE MAKING, YOU KNOW, LIKE STRIPES ON THE FLOOR AND THE SUN WAS GOING IN AND OUT SO WHEN THE SUN IS BEHIND THE CLOUD YOU DON’T HAVE THE SHADOW. SO THEN PIGS ARE GOING THROUGH THERE NICELY OTHER TIMES THEY DON’T THIS IS WHAT I CALL THE BLACK HOLE. YOU’VE GOT REALLY, REALLY SUNNY OUTSIDE AND YOU GOT A BLACK HOLE INSIDE THIS CATTLE HANDLING BUILDING AND THEY DON’T WANT TO GO IN NOW THIS IS GOING TO WORK JUST FINE AT NIGHT I LIGHT IT UP WITH LIGHTS AND THEY WILL GO IN GREAT AT NIGHT ON A CLOUDY DAY THEY WILL GO IN PRETTY GOOD BUT ON A REAL SUNNY DAY IT WOULD BE HORRIBLE TO GET THEM IN SO WHAT I GOT TO DO IS I GOT TO OPEN UP THE WALLS. I’VE GOT TO GET DAYLIGHT INTO THIS BUILDING. BECAUSE YEAH, I CAN PUT SOME LIGHTS IN THERE BUT THE PROBLEM IS THE SUN IS HUNDRED TIMES BRIGHTER THAN ANY REASONABLE LIGHT I CAN BUY SO I’VE GOT TO GET TIN OFF THAT’S WHAT I’VE GOT TO DO I’VE GOT TO GET IT SO AS THOSE ANIMALS COME IN THEY CAN SEE THROUGH THE BUILDING. AND THEN REPLACE SOME OF THAT TIN WITH WHITE TRANSLUCENT SKY LIGHTS AND I LIKE TRANSLUCENT BECAUSE I DON’T WANT TO HAVE THE SHADOWS I WANT TO GET IN LOTS OF DAYLIGHT WITHOUT SHADOWS AND WHEN YOU’RE BUILDING NEW FACILITIES PUT WHITE TRANSLUCENT PANELS IN THE CEILING NOW YOU’LL NOTICE ON THIS PARTICULAR FACILITY YOU’VE GOT A SOLID CROWD GATE. THAT’S REALLY IMPORTANT. THE CROWD GATE NEEDS TO BE SOLID SO THEY DON’T SHOVE IT BACK INTO YOUR FACE. NOW I ALWAYS GET ASKED ARE THE CATTLE SCARED OF GETTING SLAUGHTERED I ALWAYS GET ASKED THAT. AND THIS IS SOMETHING I HAD TO ANSWER VERY EARLY IN MY CAREER SO I WENT OVER TO THE LOCAL SWIFT PLANT IN ARIZONA AND THE MOVIE BE NAMED ABOTT BECAUSE THE SWIFT NAME STILL EXISTS AND TRYING TO GET PERMISSION, THAT TAKES AN ACT OF CONGRESS SO WE JUST MAKE A FAKE NAME UP AND THE PLACES THAT NO LONGER EXISTED LIKE SCOTTSDALE FEEDYARD YOU KNOW, BAD OL’ SCOTTSDALE FEEDYARD YOU CAN STILL USE THE REAL NAME THAT WAS TORN DOWN TWENTY FIVE YEARS AGO AND SO I GO OVER TO SWIFT IN TOLLESON AND AND I FOUND THE CATTLE BEHAVED THE SAME WAY AT THE SWIFT PLANT AS THEY BEHAVED AT THE FEEDYARD GOING UP A VETERINARY CHUTE, THE CHUTE FOR IMPLANTING AND THAT KIND OF STUFF WELL IF THEY KNEW THEY WERE GOING TO GET SLAUGHTERED THEY WOULD BE MUCH, MUCH WILDER AT THE PLANT, BUT THAT WASN’T THE CASE ACTUALLY THEY USUALLY BEHAVED BETTER AT THE PLANT INTERESTING ENOUGH THE HANDLING IN THE PLANTS IN THE SEVENTIES, A LOT OF THEM WAS QUITE GOOD IT WAS IN THE EIGHTIES AND EARLY NINETIES THAT THINGS GOT MESSY BUT THING IS THE SLAUGHTER PLANTS HAVE REALLY GOTTEN GOOD TODAY REALLY GOOD BUT IF YOU LOOK AT SOME OF THE STUFF ON THE INTERNET, YOU WOULD THINK THEY WERE TERRIBLE. WELL YOU KNOW THINGS HAVE IMPROVED AND PEOPLE DON’T KNOW ABOUT IT AND I FIND THAT INCREDIBLY FRUSTRATING ALRIGHT NOW IN LOOKING AT THIS PICTURE, WHAT ARE SOME THINGS IN THIS PICTURE, LOOKING AT IT FROM A CATTLE HANDLING STANDPOINT, THAT ARE GOOD OR BAD? ONE THING THAT IS GOOD IS AS THE ANIMALS LOOK INTO THE TUNNEL YOU’VE GOT THE WHITE TRANSLUCENT PANELS. I ASK MY STUDENTS TO CRITIQUE THIS SLIDE AND THEY’LL SAY THE CHAIN IS HANGING OUT BUT I FIND ABOUT HALF THE STUDENTS FAIL TO SEE THE THREE GUYS STANDING WHERE THEY SHOULD NOT BE STANDING. YOU’VE GOT THREE PEOPLE STANDING WHERE THEY SHOULD NOT BE STANDING. SOMETIMES THE MOST OBVIOUS IS THE LEAST OBVIOUS. WE NEED VISUAL THINKERS IN THE WORLD. WE NEED VISUAL THINKERS ON THE DESIGN TEAM. WHEN I FOUND OUT WHY THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BLEW UP, I COULDN’T BELIEVE IT. THEY MADE A MISTAKE NO VISUAL THINKER WOULD MAKE. THEY PUT THE EMERGENCY GENERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY COOLING PUMP IN A NON-WATERPROOF BASEMENT. WHAT DO YOU THINK HAPPENED TO THOSE DIESELS WHEN THEY WENT UNDERWATER? THEY DON’T WORK. NOW THIS SHOWS SOME OF MY CURRENT FACILITIES. CATTLE HAVE A NATURAL BEHAVIOR TO WANT TO GO BACK TO WHERE THEY COME FROM YOU WANT TO USE THAT PRINCIPAL IN HANDLING FACILITIES YOU WANT TO LAY OUT TUBS SO THEY GO AROUND IN A FULL HALF CIRCLE. LAYING THINGS OUT RIGHT IS IMPORTANT. I’VE GOT LOTS OF STUFF ON MY WEBSITE AT GRANDIN.COM THAT’S GRANDIN DOT COM, MY LAST NAME LOTS AND LOTS OF CORRAL DESIGNS AND THINGS THERE. AND THIS SHOWS A ROUND CROWD PEN MADE INTO A FULL HALF CIRCLE SO AS YOU COME AROUND THE BEND THEY ARE GOING BACK THE WAY THEY COME FROM AND ONE OF THE MOST CRITICAL PARTS OF THE DESIGN IS RIGHT WHERE THE SINGLE FILE JOINS THE CROWD PEN WHEN THEY ARE STANDING AT THE JUNCTION HE’S GOT TO BE ABLE TO SEE UP THERE TWO BODY LENGTHS. IF YOU BEND IT TOO SHARPLY IT IS NOT GOING TO WORK. YOU’VE GOT TO LAY THINGS OUT RIGHT. DETAIL OF DESIGN IS REALLY, REALLY IMPORTANT. AND THE MOST IMPORTANT PART TO MAKE SOLID IS OUTER PERIMETER SO THEY DON’T SEE DISTRACTIONS LIKE VEHICLES GOING BY. ANYONE WORKING WITH ANIMALS NEEDS TO UNDERSTAND THE FLIGHT ZONE. A FLIGHT ZONE IS THE ANIMAL’S PERSONAL SPACE. NOW IF YOU HAVE A SHOW ANIMAL THAT HAS NO FLIGHT ZONE AT ALL IF YOU HAVE AN ANIMAL THAT OUT ON A MOUNTAIN RANCH IN COLORADO, THEY WILL HAVE A BIG FLIGHT ZONE. SO THERE ARE THREE THINGS THAT DETERMINE THE FLIGHT ZONE AMOUNT OF CONTACT WITH PEOPLE QUALITY OF THE CONTACT ROUGH VERSUS QUIET AND GENETIC FACTORS THE MORE FLIGHTY ANIMALS TEND TO HAVE A BIGGER FLIGHT ZONE PEOPLE NEED TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE FLIGHT ZONE WORKS AND WHEN YOU INVADE THE FLIGHT ZONE IN A CONFINED AREA YOU CAN GET ANIMALS TURNING BACK ON YOU. NOW HERE’S A HANDY DANDY WAY TO GET AN ANIMAL INTO A SQUEEZE CHUTE WITHOUT HAVING TO USE THE ELECTRIC PROD HOW DO I FEEL ABOUT ELECTRIC PRODDERS? GET THEM OUT OF YOUR HAND. DO YOU KNOW WHAT MOST OF THE BIG PLANTS ARE DOING NOW? THEY’VE GOT ONE BATTERY OPERATED ELECTRIC PRODDER AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE RESTRAINER SYSTEM. ALL OTHER ELECTRIC PRODDERS, THEY GOT RID OF THEM. SO MY VIEW ON ELECTRIC PRODS IS IF YOU HAVE AN ANIMAL THAT WON’T GO INTO A SQUEEZE CHUTE YOU PICK IT UP, USE IT ONCE AND THEN PUT IT AWAY BUT GET IT OUT OF YOUR HAND. NOW WHAT YOU DO HERE IS YOU WALK BACK PAST THE POINT OF BALANCE. OK HERE AT THE SHOULDER OF THE ANIMAL AT THE POINT OF BALANCE AND WHEN YOU’RE BEHIND THE POINT OF BALANCE THEY GO FORWARD WHEN YOU’RE RIGHT UP CLOSE TO THEM IN THE CHUTE THE POINT OF BALANCE IS RIGHT AT THE SHOULDER SO LET’S IMAGINE THIS IS A SQUEEZE CHUTE AND I’VE GOT THE CATTLE LINED UP HERE, AND I KIND OF JUST WALK BACK BY THEM KIND OF FAST LIKE THAT IF IT IS ACROSS THE SHOULDER, THEY WILL GO FORWARD IT SEEMS COUNTERINTUITIVE BUT IT WORKS. THAT’S USING BEHAVIOR. I WANT TO GET PEOPLE INTO THE MIND-SET OF USING BEHAVIOR RATHER THAN FORCE. AND I ALSO HAVE A BIG SPANISH SECTION ON GRANDIN DOT COM. RIGHT THERE I’M DEMONSTRATING TURNING AN ANIMAL WITH A LITTLE FLAG. PEOPLE GET WAY TOO AGGRESSIVE WITH DRIVING AIDS. DON’T GET IN THERE WAVING THIS ALL AROUND, HITTING ANIMALS WITH IT WHEN THEY’RE CALM I CAN JUST PUT THEM DOWN AND I CAN JUST TURN THE ANIMAL WITH IT NICE AND GENTLY. NOW RIGHT HERE GOING THROUGH THE ROUND CROWD PEN NOTICE IT IS FILLED ONLY HALF FULL GOOD HANDLING IS GOING TO REQUIRE MORE WALKING TAKING SMALLER GROUPS, YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE TO WALK MORE, SAME THING FOR PIGS FOUR TO SIX MARKET HOGS AT A TIME TO LOAD ONTO THE TRUCK SMALL GROUPS NOTICE THE CROWD GATE IS NOT SQUISHED UP REALLY TIGHT ANOTHER PRINCIPLE IS USE FOLLOWING BEHAVIOR WAIT UNTIL THE SINGLE FILE HAS SOME ROOM IN IT AND THEN I CAN BRING THE CATTLE IN, KEEP THEM GOING, THEN GOING BACK FROM WHERE THEY COME FROM, AND THEN WALK RIGHT UP THE CHUTE YOU WANT TO USE THOSE BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES THINGS LIKE FOLLOWING BEHAVIOR AND THE POINT OF BALANCE. WATCH THE EARS, WHAT ARE THE EARS DOING ON HORSES AND CATTLE LOOK AT HOW THE ZEBRA AND THE HORSE HAVE AN EAR ON EACH OTHER AND THE OTHER EARS ON ME. THEY LOOK AT THING WITH THEIR EARS. WE WANT TO GET YOU OBSERVING THESE THINGS. WHEN THE ANIMALS ARE COMPLETELY SCARED YOU ARE NOT GOING TO SEE THESE THINGS BUT WHEN THEY ARE CALMER YOU WILL SEE THIS AND THEY WILL PUT THE EAR RIGHT ON THE HANDLER, WATCH THE HANDLER HERE ARE SOME BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES OF RESTRAINT. I CANNOT EMPHASIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF NONSLIP FLOORING. IN THE THINGS I’VE DONE A LOT OF HANDLING FACILITIES ARE AMAZED AT THE PROBLEMS YOU CAN FIX WITH A NONSLIP FLOOR. AND THESE WOVEN RUBBER TIRE MATS THEY ARE ABSOLUTELY WONDERFUL FOR PUTTING DOWN IN FRONT OF THE SQUEEZE CHUTE. AND THEN YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE YOUR ANIMAL IS NOT DOING THIS KIND OF JIG SLIPPING AND JUST GETTING MORE AND MORE AND MORE CRAZY. YOU WANT TO STOP THAT FOOT FROM SLIPPING LIKE THAT. SUDDEN JERKY MOTIONS SCARES. MAKE SURE YOU DON’T…YOU DON’T NEED TO SQUEEZE THEM TO DEATH WITH A SQUEEZE CHUTE YOU KNOW, YOU JUST GOT TO HOLD THEM AND WHEN THEY ARE CALM THEY ARE SO MUCH EASIER TO HOLD. THE WHOLE PRINCIPLE IS I WANT A CALM ANIMAL WALKING INTO THAT CHUTE AT THE SLAUGHTER PLANT, WALKING INTO THAT SQUEEZE CHUTE. NOW I DID ONE OF THE VERY FIRST STUDIES TO SHOW THAT ANIMALS THAT BECOME AGITATED IN SQUEEZE CHUTES HAVE LOWER GAINS. AND WHEN MY STUDENT FIRST DID THE STUDY I WAS LOOKED AT LIKE I WAS A NUT CASE. WELL THERE IS ONLY ABOUT TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY OTHER PAPERS NOW ON THIS. BEHAVIOR DOES MATTER. ANIMALS THAT JUMP AROUND IN SQUEEZE CHUTES HAVE LOWER WEIGHT GAINS. ANIMALS THAT RACE OUT OF SQUEEZE CHUTES HAVE LOWER WEIGHT GAINS AND ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE MEAT QUALITY PROBLEMS. BUT ON THE OTHER HAND I DON’T WANT TO SELECT BEEF CATTLE TO WHERE THEY BECOME HOLSTEINS BECAUSE A HOLSTEIN DOESN’T REALLY CARE MUCH ABOUT HER CALF. AND I HAVE ANOTHER STUDENT, CONNIE ___. AND WHAT CONNIE DID SHE LOOKED AT DIFFERENT WAYS MAMA COWS DEFEND THEIR CALF. SO MILDLY THREATEN THE COW WITH A STRANGE VEHICLE CIRCLING AROUND LIKE THIS SOME COWS ARE REALLY VIGILANT WITH THEIR HEAD UP AND SOME COWS WILL CALL THEIR CALF AND THERE ARE A FEW BAD COWS THAT WILL WALK OFF AND JUST LEAVE THEIR CALF. THAT’S NOT SOMETHING YOU WANT A BEEF COW TO DO. OKAY THIS KIND OF SHOWS DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STRESS DURING HANDLING. UP AT THE TOP REALLY ROUGH, BAD CATTLE HANDLING, LOTS OF ELECTRIC PRODS AND YOU REALLY HAVE THE CORTISOL LEVELS UP HIGH. DAIRY COWS ARE LOWER BECAUSE A DAIRY COW VOLUNTARILY GOES. WHEN YOU FORCE ANIMALS TO DO THINGS YOU GET A LOT MORE FEAR STRESS AND ALL YOUR STRESS HORMONES THAT’S GOING TO GO UP AND UP. AND THEN DOWN THERE I’VE GOT TRAINED ANTELOPE. I WORKED WITH NANCY ___ OF THE DENVER ZOO AND WE TRAINED THE UNTRAINABLE ANIMAL. THE ANIMAL IS SUPPOSED TO BE UNTRAINABLE AND WE TRAINED THEM TO STAND STILL TO GET THEIR SHOTS AND THEIR VETERINARY EXAMINATIONS AND THEIR BLOOD TESTS. AND WE GOT JUST ABOUT BASELINE LEVELS OF CORTISOL OUT OF THEM. WE WANT TO GET ANIMALS VOLUNTARILY COOPERATING WITH US NOT BE FORCING THEM THROUGH THINGS AND WHEN WE DO THAT WE’RE GOING TO DRASTICALLY REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF STRESS, NOW THERE ARE SOME DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN CORTISOL LEVELS BUT IF YOU’VE GOT 60 NANOGRAMS ___ CORTISOL AFTER HANDLING SOMETHING IS REALLY BAD AND THEN YOU DO NEED TO REMEMBER IT IS A TIME INDEPENDENT MEASURE IT TAKES FIFTEEN OR TWENTY MINUTES TO PEAK OUT. AND THEN WE GOT DEER THERE THAT WERE NETTED, AND I’VE HAD WILDLIFE BIOLOGISTS SAY TO ME WELL WE HELD THEM DOWN FOR ONLY THIRTY SECONDS, IT CAN BE THAT BAD AND I SAY LETS SAY WE WENT OUT INTO THIS BIG CITY AND SOMEONE MUGGED YOU AND STOLE YOU WALLET MAYBE THAT TOOK FIFTEEN SECONDS, BUT YOU KNOW WHAT YOU WOULD BE REAL STRESSED OVER THAT. FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH NEW PEOPLE, PLACES, OR EQUIPMENT, THEY NEED TO BE GOOD. AND WE WANT TO GET ANIMALS ACCLIMATED TO PROCEDURES. ANIMALS THAT ARE ACCLIMATED TO TRANSPORT GET A LOT LESS STRESSED THAN ANIMALS THAT ARE NOT ACCLIMATED TO TRANSPORT. WELL THE THING ABOUT SOMETHING NEW IF SOMETHING NEW IS ATTRACTIVE IF THE ANIMALS CAN VOLUNTARILY APPROACH IT AND IT IS SCARY IF YOU JUST JAM IT IN THEIR FACE THERE WAS A VERY INTERESTING EXPERIMENT DONE WITH HORSES AND THEY TRAINED A HORSE TO TOLERATE A BLUE AND WHITE UMBRELLA SUDDENLY OPENING. NORMALLY I WOULD REALLY STARTLE AN ANIMAL IF I WENT IN THE MIDDLE OF A FEEDYARD WITH AN UMBRELLA AND SUDDENLY OPENED IT WE WOULD HAVE A BUNCH OF CATTLE SCATTERING AND I DON’T RECOMMEND DOING THAT BUT THE THING IS TRAINING THEM TO TOLERATE A BLUE AND WHITE UMBRELLA DID NOT TRANSFER TO ANOTHER NOVEL OBJECT LIKE AN ORANGE TARP BECAUSE THEY ARE VISUAL NOW THE THING THAT IS INTERESTING HERE IS WHEN THE PAPER WAS STILL THE CATTLE CAME UP TO THE CLIPBOARD WHEN THE PAPER WAVED THE CATTLE JUMPED BACK. I DO HAVE A PAPER ON STRESS DURING HANDLING AND TRANSPORT AND WHEN I FIRST DID THIS, I GO IT IS LIKE A SWITCH THEY EITHER SEEK OR THE RUN AWAY GUESS WHAT…FIVE YEARS AGO THE SWITCH WAS DISCOVERED IN THE BRAINS OF RODENTS IN A PART OF THE BRAIN CALLED NUCLEUS CUNEATUS THERE IS A BIO CHEMICAL SWITCH AND IT CAN GO EITHER IN SEEK MODE APPROACH OR FEAR MODE AND THE ANIMAL CAN EITHER BE MORE BIAS TOWARDS FEAR OR MORE BIAS TOWARDS SEEK DEPENDING UPON GENETICS AND WHETHER OR NOT IT HAD BEEN ABUSED WHEN IT WAS YOUNG. THESE HORSES HAVE REALLY CALM GENETICS. THEY DON’T GET TO WORRIED ABOUT THE UMBRELLA NOW A COMMON PROBLEM I’M SEEING WITH FEEDLOT CATTLE IS ANIMALS DIFFERENTIATE. A MAN ON A HORSE IS NOT THE SAME THING AS A MAN ON THE GROUND. AND I’VE SEEN CATTLE THAT HAVE A VERY SMALL FLIGHT ZONE TO THE MAN ON THE HORSE MAYBE FIVE FEET WHEN THEY SEE THE FIRST MAN ON FOOT THEY HAVE A FLIGHT ZONE AS BIG AS THIS ROOM WELL THAT IS KIND OF DANGEROUS IN AN AUCTION OR PACKING PLANT IT IS REALLY IMPORTANT TO GET CATTLE HABITUATED GOING IN AND OUT OF PENS BOTH ON A HORSE AND ON FOOT SO THAT WHEN YOU SEND THEM ON DOWN THE ROAD THEY ARE NOT FREAKING OUT AND HITTING FENCES WHEN SOMEONE TRIES TO HANDLE THEM ON FOOT WHICH CAN BE RATHER DANGEROUS NOT GOOD NOW WE’VE BEEN DOING A LOT OF WORK ON ANIMAL WELFARE AUDITING I USED TO GET VERY FRUSTRATED BECAUSE I WOULD GO INTO A PLANT OR FEEDYARD OR RANCH AND PUT IN A REALLY NICE FACILITY I WOULD COME BACK A YEAR LATER AND OVER HALF OF MY CLIENTS WOULD HAVE THE HOT SHOT OUT AND SCREAMING AND EVERYTHING ELSE WHAT HAD HAPPENED IS THEY HAD SLOWLY LAPSED BACK INTO BAD HANDLING AND THEY DIDN’T REALIZE IT THAT’S WHY WE NEED TO BE MEASURING HANDLING IT PREVENTS BAD FROM BECOMING NORMAL CAN YOU IMAGINE HOW MUCH SPEEDING THERE WOULD BE ON THE HIGHWAYS IF POLICE NEVER MEASURED IT. AND YOU NEED TO HAVE CLEAR GUIDELINES YOU DON’T HAVE GUIDELINES THAT SAY DO THE RIGHT CORRECT SPEED THERE IS AN ACTUAL NUMERICAL SCORE THERE WHAT SPEED YOU OUGHT TO BE GOING YOU NEED TO HAVE CLEAR GUIDELINES. I’M INVOLVED IN WRITING A LOT OF GUIDELINES. I WAS ON THE O-I-E SLAUGHTER COMMITTEE ONE OF THE THINGS I WROTE IN THAT IS WE HAVE SOME CLEAR GUIDELINES ON STUFF YOU DON’T DO LIKE THROWING ANIMALS JUMPING ANIMALS OFF OF TRUCKS WITH OUT A LOADING RAMP AND I’M NOT TALKING ABOUT A STOCK TRAILER I’M TALKING ABOUT SOMETHING THIS HIGH LIKE KILLING ANIMALS BY STABBING THEM IN THE BACK OF THE NECK WITH A PUNTILLA CUTTING TENDONS, BECAUSE THIS IS FOR THE WORLD. NOBODY CUTS TENDONS HERE OR POKES OUT EYES. NOBODY DOES THAT HERE BUT THERE ARE SOME PLACES IN THE WORLD WHERE THAT IS DONE AND YOU’VE GOT TO COME OUT AND SAY THIS IS BAD STUFF THAT YOU ABSOLUTELY SHOULD NOT DO BUT THE TREND NOW IN AUDITING ANIMAL WELFARE AND MANY OTHER THINGS AND THE O-I-E HAS A LOT OF ANIMAL WELFARE GUIDELINES AND THE WORLD ANIMAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION,I-S-0 IS COMING OUT WITH GUIDELINES IT IS USING AN OUTCOME BASED MEASURE AND I’M GOING TO SHOW YOU SOME FOR HANDLING. SOME OTHER OUTCOME BASED HANDLING I MIGHT USE FOR DAIRY WOULD BE BODY CONDITION SCORE LAMENESS THOSE WOULD BE OUTCOME BASED MEASURES OK WHAT ABOUT FOR BEEF CATTLE HANDLING IS THE BRIGHT SPOT BUT I AM CONCERNED AS WE ARE GETTING HEAVIER CATTLE MORE USE OF BETA ANGUS MORE BLACK CATTLE WE GOT TO BE VERY, VERY CAREFUL ABOUT HEAT STRESS AND ONE SIMPLE THING YOU CAN MEASURE ARE THEY BREATHING WITH THEIR MOUTH OPEN TERRY MADER WHO USED TO BE HERE DID A LOT OF RESEARCH ON THAT IF YOU ARE NOT CAREFUL WITH BETA ANGUS AND GET THEM TO LOOK LIKE ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER’S ARM AND MAKE THE BUTT LOOK LIKE BODY BUILDER BICEPS YOU CAN GET STIFF CATTLE LAME CATTLE THAT’S NOT OKAY SO BASICALLY I’VE WATCHED A LOT OF CATTLE GET OFF THE TRUCKS AT THE MEAT PLANTS AND THEY BETTER BE WALKING NORMALLY I’VE SEEN PIGS WHERE THEY HAVE VERY BAD LEG CONFIRMATION MAKES THEM LAME LAMENESS IS A REALLY GOOD OUTCOME MEASURE. THERE ARE DIFFERENT THINGS THAT CAN MAKE ANIMALS LAME THAT NEEDS TO BE KEPT AT A VERY LOW LEVEL. THE ORGANIC PEOPLE, THEY NEED TO BE MEASURING COAT CONDITION BECAUSE WE SHOULDN’T BE GETTING BAD BECOMING NORMAL AND ITS OKAY FOR CATTLE TO HAVE LICE AND A BOLD SPOTS THAT IS ABSOLUTELY NOT OKAY HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A GUIDELINE THAT’S CLEAR ALL THE ANIMALS HAVE TO HAVE ENOUGH ROOM TO LIE DOWN WITHOUT BEING ON TOP OF EACH OTHER YOU WRITE SOMETHING LIKE GIVE THEM SUFFICIENT SPACE I DON’T KNOW WHAT THAT MEANS BUT I’VE DONE A LOT OF WORK ON TRAINING AUDITORS FOR THE ANIMAL WELFARE AUDITS FOR THE MEAT PLANTS YOU’VE GOT A DAY AND A HALF WORKSHOP AND THINGS HAVE GOT TO BE SIMPLE. OKAY LETS LOOK AT SCORING ANIMAL HANDLING THESE ARE EXAMPLES OF OUTCOME MEASURES I’M NOT TELLING YOU HOW TO BUILD FACILITIES HERE I’M TELLING YOU THAT YOU NEED TO ACHIEVE CERTAIN OUTCOMES YES I DESIGN FACILITIES I’D BE HAPPY TO DO THAT BUT ONE THING WE LEARNED IN THE WORK I DID WITH MCDONALDS BACK IN NINETEEN NINETY NINE ON STARTING THE MCDONALDS AUDITS IN SOME OF OUR OLDER PLANTS. THEY HAD SOME PRETTY OLD FACILITIES WE WERE ABLE TO GET MOST OF THOSE TO WORK WITH SIMPLE CHANGES NONSLIP FLOORING SOLID SIDES IN THE RIGHT PLACES FIXING LIGHTING AND TRAINING PEOPLE. ALL RIGHT LETS LOOK AT ANIMAL HANDLING OUTCOME VARIABLES FOR BEEF CATTLE HOW MANY ANIMALS RUN WHEN YOU OPEN UP A SQUEEZE CHUTE. THAT IS NOT A GOOD THING HOW MANY ANIMALS FALL THAT NEEDS TO BE VERY, VERY LOW, LIKE UNDER ONE PERCENT HOW MANY ANIMALS MOO WHEN YOU CATCH THEM IN THE HEAD GATE, YOU HURT THEM WITH THE HEAD GATE THAT IS STUFF I CAN MEASURE AND HOW MANY ANIMALS DID YOU MOVE WITH THE ELECTRIC PROD IT SHOULD BE A VERY, VERY LOW LEVEL AND THE ADVANTAGE OF MEASURING THIS IS I CAN TELL AM I GETTING BETTER OR AM I GETTING WORSE NOW THIS IS THE AMERICAN MEAT INSTITUTE CRITERIA FOR ANIMAL HANDLING AND THIS HAS BEEN USED FOR OVER TEN YEARS, IT HAS BEEN USED AROUND THE WORLD NOW THE THING IS THESE ARE FIVE VERY SIMPLE OUTCOME VARIABLES HOW MANY ANIMALS DID WE STUN CORRECTLY ON THE FIRST SHOT I CAN TELL YOU WHEN WE STARTED BACK IN NINETEEN NINETY NINE IT WAS BAD LOTS OF PLANTS BROKE THE STUNNING EQUIPMENT THE THING IS THAT IS AN OUTCOME MEASURE HOW MANY ANIMALS WERE DEAD BEFORE WE HANG THEM UP AND CUT THINGS OFF OF THEM THAT WOULD BE ALL OF THEM. HOW MANY ANIMALS DID YOU POKE WITH THE ELECTRIC PRODDER YOU WANT AN EXCELLENT SCORE, LETS GET IT DOWN TO FIVE PERCENT ACCEPTABLE YOU CAN DO TWENTY FIVE PERCENT IN THE PLANT HOW MANY ANIMALS MOO MOST OF OUR PLANTS RIGHT NOW GETTING THE CATTLE UP IN THE RESTRAINER HAVE A TWO PERCENT VOCALIZATION SCORE I CAN TELL YOU THIS IS ONE PLACE WE ARE AHEAD OF EUROPE THERE’S A PAPER IN MEAT SCIENCE IN A FRENCH PLANT AND THEY’VE GOT A TWENTY FIVE PERCENT VOCALIZATION SCORE THAT IS SOMETHING TO BE ASHAMED OF THAT IS NOT SOMETHING TO BE PROUD OF FALLING SCORE SHOULD BE ONE PERCENT OR LESS ACTUALLY IF YOU AGGRAGATE THE DATA IN THE PLANTS IT IS LIKE ONE IN TWO THOUSAND. I JUST READ A BRAND NEW PAPER IN THE JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE ON A GOOD HOG LOADING RAMP VERSUS A BAD ONE AND THE GOOD LOADING RAMP HAD AN ELEVEN PERCENT FALLING SCORE WELL THAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN IN THE METHODS THAT THEY WERE USING AN ELECTRIC PROD ON EVERY SINGLE PIG YES THE GOOD LOADING RAMP WAS BETTER THAN THE BAD ONE BUT AN ELEVEN PERCENT FALLING SCORE BE ASHAMED SLAUGHTER HOUSES ARE DOING A WHOLE LOT BETTER THAN THAT PEOPLE DON’T KNOW ABOUT IT DRIVES ME CRAZY NOW THE THING THAT IS GOOD ABOUT USING OBJECTIVE SCORING IS WHETHER I AUDIT A PLANT MCDONALD’S AUDITED A PLANT, WENDY’S AUDITED THE PLANT WOULD GET THE SAME SCORES THAT’S GOOD IN NINETEEN NINETY SIX WHEN I FIRST STARTED THIS ONLY THIRTY PERCENT OF THE PLANT COULD SHOOT NINETY-FIVE PERCENT ON THE FIRST SHOT BECAUSE THEIR EQUIPMENT WAS BUSTED NOW IT IS WAY BETTER IT’S GOTTEN A WHOLE LOT BETTER AND A LOT OF THE PLANTS NOW HAVE PUT IN VIDEO AUDITING WHERE AUDITORS OVER THE INTERNET CAN LOOK AT THEM AT ANY TIME AND SEE HOW THINGS ARE GOING THIS SOLVES THE PROBLEM OF WHEN THE BACK IS TURNED BECAUSE UNFORTUNATELY THE LATEST MESS WE HAD AT CENTRAL VALLEY MEATS THEY HAD BEEN AUDITED TWO WEEKS PRIOR AND THEY PASSED THE AUDIT BECAUSE THE PLANT MADE SURE ALL THE AWFUL CATTLE WEREN’T BROUGHT IN AND I GET VERY UPSET THAT BEEF IS TAKING A RAP FOR A LOT OF DAIRY SENSE BECAUSE I TRAVEL AROUND, PEOPLE SAY TO ME THEY WON’T EAT BEEF AGAIN REALIZE IT WAS THE HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS OUT IN CALIFORNIA ABOUT HALF OF THE PROBLEM THAT YOU HAD AT THAT PLANT WAS CAUSED BY FACTORS ON THE FARM YOU’VE GOT CALVES THAT SHOULDN’T BE THERE SO LAME THEY CAN’T WALK, SO SKINNY THEY CAN BARELY MOVE WHAT I’M SEEING NOW AT THE SLAUGHTER PLANTS WHEN I SEE A PROBLEM IT’S SOMETHING FROM THE FARM LIKE BAD LEG CONFIRMATION CATTLE THAT ARE WILD BECAUSE THEY HAVEN’T BEEN HANDLED ON FOOT AT ALL OR CATTLE THAT ARE STIFF THINGS LIKE THIS THIS HAS TO BE FIXED ON THE FARM THE PRINCIPLE OF THIS IS YOU MEASURE A SMALL NUMBER OF CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS LET’S GO BACK TO OUR TRAFFIC WHEN YOU REALLY GET RIGHT DOWN TO IT THERE ARE ONLY THREE THINGS THAT THE POLICE NEED TO MEASURE SPEEDING, RED LIGHTS, STOP SIGN VIOLATIONS AND ERRATIC DRIVING, THAT IS COVERING ALL THE DRUNKEN DRIVING STUFF THAT IS PROBABLY ABOUT NINETY PERCENT OF ALL YOUR STUFF THOSE ARE CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS AND IT IS USING THE SAME PRINCIPLE AS A HACCP FOOD SAFETY AUDIT THE OTHER THING IS IT IS NOT A PAPERWORK AUDIT I’VE SEEN MORE PAPERWORK STUFF, EVERYBODY WANTS TO TURN FOOD SAFETY AND ANIMAL WELFARE INTO TONS OF PAPERWORK WELL I WORKED FOR TWENTY YEARS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AND I SAW MORE FAKE PAPERWORK, MORE FAKE TRUCKERS LOG BOOKS I WANT TO LOOK AT DIRECTLY OBSERVABLE THINGS LIKE HOW MANY CATTLE FALL DOWN OR HOW MANY SKINNY ONES YOU GOT OR LAME ONES YOU GOT OR HOW MUCH OPEN MOUTH BREAKING YOU GOT THESE ARE THE THINGS I CAN DIRECTLY OBSERVE NOW THIS CAN SHOW YOU HOW YOU CAN IMPROVE YOUR HANDLING IF I GOT AIR BLOWING OUT OF THE ENTRANCE OF THE RESTRAINER THE ANIMALS ARE NOT GOING TO GO IN I GET RID OF THAT AND THEN I HAVE LESS VOCALIZATION BECAUSE I’M NOT PRODDING THEM ALL THE TIME I CAN CHART AND IMPROVEMENT HERE’S A DARK ENTRANCE I PUT A LIGHT ON AN ENTRANCE OF A CHUTE AND I WENT FROM THIRTY EIGHT PERCENT OF THESE PIGS HAVING TO BE ELECTRIC PRODDED DOWN TO ONLY FOUR PERCENT ALL I DID WAS DUCT TAPE A LIGHT TO THE ENTRANCE OF THE CHUTE THAT WAS A NICE, SIMPLE, EASY FIX NOW THIS IS MY CENTER TRACK RESTRAINER SYSTEM AND YOU COULD GO TO THE BEEF PLANT VIDEO TOUR WITH TEMPLE GRANDIN YOU CAN SEE THIS IN A REAL PLANT OPERATING AND YOU’LL NOTICE CATTLE WALK DOWN A LITTLE ENTRANCE RAMP AND THAT LITTLE ENTRANCE RAMP IS CLEATED AND IF YOU SAW THE MOVIE THERE WAS A SCENE WHERE THEY PUT A METAL PLATE OVER MY CLEATED RAMP AND THE CATTLE FLIPPED OVER AND DROWNED. THAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED. PEOPLE HAD A HARD TIME GETTING THEIR HEAD AROUND THAT A NONSLIP RAMP GOING IN THE CATTLE ACTUALLY WALK IN YOU ALSO HAVE TO HAVE A FALSE FLOOR UNDER THIS BECAUSE THIS IS SEVEN OR EIGHT FEET ABOVE THE GROUND AND IF THEY LOOK DOWN AND THINK CLIFF THEY ARE NOT GOING TO GO IN SEE AGAIN THIS GETS DOWN TO USING BEHAVIOR YOU’LL ALSO SEE KIND OF A HOLD DOWN RACK HERE YOU HAVE TO MAKE SURE THIS IS LONG ENOUGH SO WHEN THE HEAD POPS OUT HERE THE FEET ARE OFF THE ENTRANCE RAMP A TWO FOOT DIFFERENCE IN THIS IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CATTLE RIDING CALMLY AND CATTLE GOING BERSERK IN THE SYSTEM YES BEHAVIOR ACTUALLY REALLY DOES MATTER SOMETIMES I CAN’T BELIEVE HOW WELL IT WORKS. YOU ALSO HAVE TO MAKE SURE THE HOLD DOWN DOESN’T HIT THEM RIGHT HERE, THEY WON’T GO IN IT IS A LOT OF LITTLE DETAILS I THINK I’M GOING TO GET JOB SECURITY BECAUSE I STILL GO INTO PLACES AND CAN FIX ALL THESE LITTLE THINGS AND SOMETIMES YOU GOT TO FIX A WHOLE LOT OF LITTLE THINGS I WENT INTO ONE PLANT AND THE LITTLE BACK-STOP GATE WAS SHAKING LIKE THIS AND THE CATTLE WOULDN’T GO IN THE CHUTE BECAUSE THE GATE WAS SHAKING AND WHEN I TOLD THE PLANT MANAGER HE GOES ___ WHY DIDN’T I SEE THAT? SEE THAT IS LOOKING AT VISUAL DETAIL OKAY THIS IS WHAT IS CALLED THE VISUAL CLIFF BOTH ANIMALS AND BABIES WILL NOT GO OUT OVER A PIECE OF GLASS WHERE THEY SEE THE DROP OFF IT IS A VISUAL CLIFF EFFECT YOU’VE GOT TO MAKE SURE YOU’VE GOT THAT FALSE FLOOR IN THERE SO THEY DON’T SEE THE VISUAL CLIFF EFFECT. OKAY HERE ARE SOME OTHER THINGS I’VE FIXED I INSTALLED A LIGHT ON THE RESTRAINER ENTRANCE AND IT WENT FROM EIGHT PERCENT MOOING AND VOCALIZING DOWN TO ZERO PERCENT ONE LIGHT I PUT IN A FALSE FLOOR I WENT FROM NINE PERCENT DOWN TO ZERO PERCENT WHY ARE PEOPLE TAKING STUFF OFF OF THIS I GO IN AN THEY HAVE TAKEN A LAMP OFF THEY’VE TAKEN THE FALSE FLOOR OUT BECAUSE THEY DON’T WANT TO CLEAN THE EXTRA METAL WELL THEY WOULDN’T BE TAKING THE DRIVE UNIT OFF TWO THOUSAND AND TWELVE I HAD TWO PEOPLE CUT THE RAMP OFF THE RESTRAINER ENTRANCE AND I HAD TO GO PUT IT BACK ON THESE PEOPLE WEREN’T DOING THIS TO BE BAD IT’S LIKE THEY DIDN’T SEE IT NOW REDUCE PRESSURE ON THE NECK I WENT FROM TWENTY THREE PERCENT DOWN TO ZERO PERCENT THERE IS JUST AN EXAMPLE OF A LIGHT ON THE ENTRANCE OF THE CHUTE AND THIS IS SOME PIGS THAT WERE EASY TO DRIVE VERSUS PIGS THAT WERE HARD TO DRIVE BUT WHAT I THINK I WANT TO DO NOW IS JUST OPEN IT UP TO QUESTIONS BECAUSE I LOVE TO HAVE LOTS OF DISCUSSION AND I WILL REPEAT THE QUESTION SO PEOPLE CAN HEAR THE QUESTIONS I DON’T KNOW IF WE HAVE A BATTERY OPERATED MIC TO GO AROUND I WILL TAKE A FEW QUESTIONS OFF THE FRONT AND I WILL REPEAT THEM AND ANOTHER THING I HAVE A FEW OTHER THINGS TO TALK ABOUT. LET’S TALK ABOUT A FEW OTHER THINGS ON COMMUNICATING WITH THE PEOPLE IN CHICAGO AND IN NEW YORK AND THINGS LIKE THAT THE THING IS WHAT IS CHORES TO YOU IS INTERESTING TO PEOPLE IN THE CITIES. I’M NOT KIDDING. ONE OF THE GREAT P-R THINGS WAS THIS I’M FARMING AND I GROW IT FARMING IS SEXY AND I KNOW IT BOY THAT PUT A LOT OF PROFESSIONAL P-R FIRMS TO SHAME MAKE YOUR OWN U-TUBE VIDEOS. SEND PICTURES OF CALVING AND STUFF AND JUST CHORES TO FRIENDS IN CHICAGO AND LET’S LOOK AT HOW SOMETHING LIKE THE PINK SLIME MESS THAT WAS NOT HANDLED WELL ONE OF REASONS I DIDN’T JUMP INTO THAT DEBACLE IS, TO BE HONEST, I DIDN’T KNOW WHAT THE STUFF WAS. OUR TWO PLANTS IN CHICAGO I MEAN IN COLORADO…OUR TWO PLANTS IN COLORADO DON’T MAKE FINELY TEXTURED BEEF AND IN MOST OF THE OTHER PLANTS I GET INTO I STAY IN THE LIVE SIDE THE SLAUGHTER SIDE AND THAT WASN’T HANDLED WELL THAT PLANT THERE SHOULD HAVE BEEN A VIDEO OF THE WHOLE PLANT UP ON THE INTERNET THEY HAVE A THOUSAND PERFECT FOOD SAFETY TESTS WHY WASN’T THAT PUT UP RIGHT AWAY THAT WAS NOT BEING HANDLED VERY WELL AND THEN I STARTED CALCULATING HOW MANY CATTLE WE WOULD WASTE IF WE DON’T USE THAT PRODUCT WELL PEOPLE DON’T RESPOND VERY WELL TO BIG ABSTRACT NUMBERS ABOUT THINGS SO I CHANGED IT TO HOW MANY SEMI LOADS OF CATTLE WE WOULD BE THROWING AWAY LET’S SAY AT YOUR FOUR BIGGEST PLANTS YOU GOT HERE WE DEVOTED A TRUCK LOAD EACH DAY IN TO THE DUMP AND SHOT THEM THAT IS WHAT WOULD HAPPEN BASICALLY IF THEY ARE NOT USING FINELY TEXTURED BEEF WE WOULD BE THROWING AWAY A LOT OF MEAT BUT THE PROBLEM IS IT WAS A SURPRISE IT WAS NOT ON THE LABEL PEOPLE DON’T LIKE SURPRISES WE NEED TO BE EXPLAINING STUFF WE HAVE GOT TO DO THAT WE ABSOLUTELY HAVE GOT TO DO THOSE KIND OF THINGS WE’VE GOT TO CHANGE SOME ACTIVITIES AND THEN SHOW WHAT WE DO SLAUGHTER PLANT VIDEO HAS BEEN GETTING PRETTY GOOD REVIEWS WE’VE GOT TO BE SHOWING STUFF I’VE TAKEN PEOPLE ON TOURS OF SLAUGHTER PLANTS FOR YEARS AND THEY ARE AMAZED AT HOW QUIETLY CATTLE WALK UP THE CHUTE PEOPLE DON’T KNOW WHERE ANYTHING IS MADE WE’VE GOT A GENERATION GROWING UP TODAY THAT DOESN’T DO STUFF ANY MORE BECAUSE THEY HAVE TAKEN ALL THE HANDS-ON CLASSES OUT OF SCHOOLS WE’VE GOT PROBLEMS WITH CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS TOO AND I THINK A LOT OF THE HANDS-ON THINGS I WAS OVER THERE AT THE AT THE MEETING IN THE QUILT CENTER AND GOT TO SEE THIS COOL LITTLE SEWING MACHINE LIKE I HAD WHEN I WAS A LITTLE KID NOW THAT IS MAKING STUFF YOU HAVE TO SOLVE A PROBLEMS OKAY WHAT I THINK I WANT TO DO RIGHT NOW IS SOME QUESTIONS. HOW ABOUT THE GUY WITH THE RED SHIRT MAYBE YOU COULD AS SOMETHING GREEN: I THINK THERE ARE ROVING MICS. WE’VE BEEN CHALLENGED BY DR. GRANDIN TO ASK QUESTIONS SO THERE IS A MIC DOWN ON THE FLOOR HERE AND THERE ALSO IS A MIC IN THE UPPER DECK SO IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION POP YOUR HAND UP AND THE MIC WILL COME TO YOU WE NEED YOU TO SAY IT ON THE MIC. NUMBER ONE SO IT CAN BE HEARD AND IT CAN BE STREAMED FRED BRUNING IN THE BACK QUESTION: GRANDIN: WELL IN HOLLYWOOD THE WORD SLAUGHTER WAS JUST FINE. I USED THAT WORD IN HOLLYWOOD.IF YOU WANT TO CLEAN IT UP A BIT HOW ABOUT PROCESSING PLANT OR MEAT PLANT YOU KNOW WHAT THEY CALL IT IN AUSTRALIA, THEY CALL IT THE MEAT WORKS NO..I THINK THAT’S A PRETTY GOOD WORD ON MY VIDEO THAT I SELL I CALL IT THE MEAT PLANT YOU CAN CALL IT A PROCESSING PLANT BUT I THINK HARVEST IS SORT OF SANITIZING THINGS A BIT TOO MUCH WHEN I TALKED TO THE HOLLYWOOD PRESS IT WAS ALL SLAUGHTER AND YOU KNOW WHAT HAPPENED DURING THE HOLLYWOOD PRESS CONFERENCE ALL THEY WANTED TO ASK WERE CATTLE QUESTIONS AND THE MODERATOR HAD TO CUT IT OFF BECAUSE THE DIRECTOR WAS THERE AND THEY WANTED TO GET SOME MOVIE QUESTIONS AND THE HOLLYWOOD PRESS THEY WANTED TO FIND OUT HOW THE SLAUGHTER PLANTS WORKED AND THEY WERE JUST CURIOUS THEY WERE JUST ABSOLUTELY CURIOUS AND WE THINK EVERYBODY IN HOLLYWOOD IS A BUNCH OF DRUNKS DO YOU KNOW WHAT THEY WERE DOING AT THE GOLDEN GLOBE PARTY NETWORKING FOR THE NEXT JOB THEY WERE NOT GETTING DRUNK I CAN TELL YOU THAT MUCH GREEN: WHO HAS THE NEXT QUESTION? GRANDIN: WELL I’M IN KIND OF A SITUATION WHERE I GO BACK AND FORTH WITH THE AUTISM STUFF AND A LOT OF MY AUTISM BOOKS I’M GOING BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN THE CITY WORLD AND THE AG WORLD AND THAT IS A REAL INTERESTING PERSPECTIVE GREEN: I THINK WE HAVE A QUESTION IN THE UPPER DECK QUESTION: I HAVE A QUESTION SO WHEN YOU ARE BRANDING CATTLE WHAT WOULD BE A WAY TO REDUCE THEM FROM SCREAMING AND THE MOVING AROUND SO MUCH IN THE CHUTE GRANDIN: WHEN YOU ARE BRANDING CATTLE WELL HAVE A GOOD SQUEEZE CHUTE TO HOLD THEM I’M A BIG BELIEVER IN HAVING A COMPLETE SQUEEZE CHUTE WHERE BOTH SIDES SQUEEZE IN AND OKAY IF YOU ARE DOING STANDING I LIKE WHERE BOTH SIDES SQUEEZE IN SO YOUR ANIMAL IS NOT PUSHED OFF BALANCE BECAUSE SOME SQUEEZE CHUTES JUST SQUEEZE FROM ONE SIDE IF YOU ADJUST THEM RIGHT THEY ARE ALRIGHT BUT IF YOU ADJUST THEM WRONG THEN YOU THROW YOUR ANIMAL OFF BALANCE AND THEN IT FREAKS OUT AND PANICS BECAUSE YOU ARE THROWING IT OFF BALANCE IF YOU ARE BRANDING CATTLE YOU BETTER HAVE MORE THAN JUST THE HEAD GATE AT THE END OF AN ALLEY BUT I’M A BIG FAN OF HAVING A COMPLETE SQUEEZE CHUTE IT IS A LOT SAFER FOR YOU AND THE CATTLE GREEN: NEXT QUESTION A COUPLE MORE ON THE UPPER DECK PUT YOUR HAND UP SO THE MIC FOLKS CAN SEE YOU QUESTION: DR. GRANDIN WE HAPPENED TO SEE A LECTURE BY DR. CARCURO OF I-S-U LAST SPRING AND HE WAS TALKING TO OUR VETERINARY CLASS ABOUT THIS WONDERFUL CHUTE THEY HAD DESIGNED FOR PIGS TO GO UP IT WAS A RAMP DESIGNED FOR PIGS DESIGNED FOR PIGS HE TALKED TO US ABOUT BY CHANGING THE DEGREES OF HOW STEEP IT WAS THE PIGS WOULD GO UP IT AND IT SOUNDED LIKE A WONDER CHUTE BUT BY THE END OF THE PRESENTATION HE TOLD US IT COST ANYWHERE FROM TWENTY THOUSAND TO THIRTY THOUSAND. GRANDIN: FIRST OF ALL YOU DON’T NEED TO HAVE A CHUTE THAT EXPENSIVE I KNOW JUST WHAT CHUTE YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT..WAY TOO EXPENSIVE AND I READ THE PAPER IN THE JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND IT IS ALSO THE PAPER WHERE THEY TESTED THAT THEY WERE HOT SHOTTING ALL THE PIGS TOO BECAUSE I CALLED UP THE AUTHOR AND SAID WHAT WERE YOU DOING TO THESE PIGS TO GET ELEVEN PERCENT FALLING SCORE IT WASN’T IN THE METHODS THAT THEY HOT SHOTTED EVER PIG AND THE MAIN THINGS ON THAT CHUTE THAT WERE IMPROVED ISN’T GOING TO COST TWENTY THOUSAND DOLLARS I WAS JUST DOWN AT THE SEABOARD FARMS AND THEY HAVE A PORTABLE CHUTE AND THEY MADE IT LONGER SO INSTEAD OF HAVING A TWENTY FOOT ANGLE, YOU’VE GOT A FIFTEEN DEGREE ANGLE I THINK THAT IMPORTANT AND IT DOESN’T COST TWENTY THOUSAND DOLLARS AND YOU MAKE YOUR CHUTE JUST A LITTLE BIT WIDER, SO TWO BIG PIGS AND PIGS HAVE GOTTEN A LOT HEAVIER CAN WALK UP SIDE BY SIDE SPACE THE CLEATS ABOUT SIX OR EIGHT INCHES APART THAT IS GOING TO WORK FINE THEY HAVE A LOVELY NICE SIMPLE PORTABLE CHUTE THAT IS WIDER AND LONGER IT WORKS JUST FINE AND IT DOESN’T COST TWENTY OR THIRTY THOUSAND DOLLARS BECAUSE YOU’VE GOT TO LOOK AT THAT THING AND GO WHAT ARE THE FEATURES ON THAT THAT MADE IT WORK SO MUCH BETTER AND I READ THAT PAPER REALLY CAREFULLY YOU REDUCE THE ANGLE NOW IF YOU MAKE IT TEN DEGREES AND THE TRAILER IS SO LONG IT IS STUPID AND THESE PIGS WENT UP REALLY NICE UP THIS CHUTE AND YOU WANT TO MAKE IT SO TWO PIGS CAN WALK UP IT SIDE BY SIDE AND NOT JAM AND THEN HAVE REALLY GOOD NONSLIP FOOTING AND THEY JUST HAD BARS WELDED TO THE FLOOR IT WORKED GREAT QUESTION: SO I GUESS MY QUESTION IS HOW ARE YOU GOING TO SORT BETWEEN HYPED UP SCIENCE LIKE THAT VERSUS COMMON SENSE FOR THE INDUSTRY GRANDIN: HYPED UP WHAT WELL I DON’T THINK YOU NEED TO BUYS SOMETHING THAT EXPENSIVE I SAW SOMETHING A LOT CHEAPER THAT WORKED ABSOLUTELY GREAT ONE OF THE THINGS YOU GOT TO DO IS LOOK AT THE FEATURES THAT MADE IT BETTER INCREASED WIDTH AND LESS ANGLE ARE THE TWO FEATURES THAT MADE IT BETTER AND THE OTHER THING THAT IS REALLY IMPORTANT IS NOT TO GET THE PIGS SO EXCITED CULL HANDLING FOUR OR SIX AT A TIME AND THEY WERE DOING THAT…WHEN I CALLED THE AUTHOR HE ADMITTED PUTTING A HOT SHOT IN THE MIDDLE OF EVERY SINGLE PIG BECAUSE WHEN I LOOKED AT THE SCORES THE SCORES WERE TERRIBLE EVEN WITH A GOOD CHUTE ELEVEN PERCENT FALLING SCORE, YOU SHOULD BE ASHAMED I’VE WATCHED PIGS GETTING LOADED OUT ON THIS OTHER CHEAPER CHUTE WE DID HALF A TRUCK WHILE I WAS THERE AND THEY DIDN’T HAVE ANY FALL BECAUSE WE WERE FILMING A PIG HANDLING VIDEO AND AND AND YOU CAN ACHIEVE THE SAME RESULT WITH SOMETHING THAT’S NOT SO EXPENSIVE BUT THE OTHER THING IS DON’T GET ANIMALS SO EXCITED BECAUSE EVEN WITH THE OLD RAMP THAT IS TWENTY DEGREES I HAVE SEEN THEM HANDLED WHERE THEY ARE NOT FALLING AND IT WILL WORK FAIRLY DECENTLY YOU’VE GOT TO HAVE GOOD NONSLIP FLOORING GREEN: I THINK THERE IS ANOTHER QUESTION RIGHT UP HERE QUESTION: YOU’VE MENTIONED RECENTLY IN A NUMBER OF SWINE MAGAZINES OR LIVESTOCK MAGAZINES THAT THE GESTATION CRATE HAS TO GO IN THE SWINE INDUSTRY WITH THAT SAID WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE WAY TO HOUSE GESTATING SOWS GRANDIN: ONE OF THE PROBLEMS WITH A SOW STALL THING AND I’M FULLY AWARE OF ALL THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS YOU ARE NOT GOING TO SELL IT TO THE PUBLIC NOW IF YOU’D LIKE STAND UP AT BARNES AND NOBLE IN NEW YORK TO TRY TO SELL IT … I’LL SET IT UP FOR YOU…WE MIGHT DIE SO LET’S LOOK AT THINGS THAT CAN WORK THERE ARE THREE BASIC DIFFERENT WAYS YOU CAN HOUSE SOWS IN GROUPS AND THEY ALL WORKED YOU CAN DO EUROPEAN FREE CHOICE WALK-UP STALLS..THEY COST A LOT OF MONEY YOU CAN TAKE THE EXISTING SOW STALLS AND CUT THE BACKS OFF AND HAVE FIVE PIGS IN A LITTLE GROUP OR YOU CAN USE THE ELECTRONIC FEEDERS, BUT IF YOU WANT TO GO WITH ELECTRONIC FEEDERS YOU BETTER LIKE COMPUTERS VERY MUCH SO IT IS KIND OF PERSONAL PREFERENCE AS TO WHICH ONE OF THOSE SYSTEMS TO USE THEY ARE GOING TO TAKE MORE SPACE..ANYWHERE FROM TEN TO THIRTY PERCENT MORE SPACE HOW DO WE DEAL WITH FIGHTING THE FIRST THING IS GENETICS I HAD A CHANCE TO GO DOWN AND VISIT SMITHFIELD AND THEY HAD TO CHANGE SOME OF THE SOW GENETICS SEE THE PROBLEM IS IN THE LATE EIGHTIES AND I WATCHED THIS HAPPEN WHEN THE INDUSTRY WENT INTO THE LEAN LINE PIGS THEY ACCIDENTALLY BRED A MEAN PIG THAT FIGHTS A LOT NOBODY DID THAT DELIBERATELY. IT WAS A MISTAKE THAT HAPPENED AND YOU’VE GOT TO GET GENETICS THAT ARE NOT SO MEAN AND OTHER THINGS YOU CAN DO..I JUST READ A BRAND NEW PAPER IN THE JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE ON DON’T MIX DIFFERENT PARITIES DON’T TAKE A FIRST PARITY GILT AND PUT IT IN WITH A BIG HUGE MAMA ON ITS FOURTH SET OF PARITY DON’T MIX THE PARITIES THERE ARE SOME THINGS YOU CAN DO TO MAKE IT WORK BUT YOU ARE GOING TO HAVE TO CHANGE GENETICS THE THING I THINK IS VERY INTERESTING ON THIS WHY IS SMITHFIELD CHANGING IT FIRST I THINK YOU NEED TO LOOK AT A MAP OF THE UNITED STATES AND LOOK WHERE CORPORATE OFFICES ARE LOCATED AND SMITHFIELD HAS CORPORATE OFFICES LOCATED RIGHT NEXT TO POPULATION CENTERS GUESS WHAT THERE IS GOING TO BE SOCIAL MIXING OUTSIDE THE BOX AND I THINK THAT HAS SOMETHING TO DO WITH IT GREEN: YES, QUESTION RIGHT THERE ON THE FLOOR MARY QUESTION: THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE MY QUESTION IS WHEN YOU WERE WORKING ON THE MOVIE AND YOU SPENT TIME IN HOLLYWOOD I IMAGINE YOU RAN INTO A LOT OF PEOPLE ……. GRANDIN: WHEN I TALK TO PEOPLE AND I TELL THEM THINGS LIKE..SITTING NEXT TO SOMEONE ON A PLANE OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT AND I’LL TELL THEM ABOUT THE MCDONALDS AUDITS AND…THEY WILL SAY MCDONALDS DOES THAT..YOU’VE GOT TO BE KIDDING THIS IS WHERE THE GOOD THINGS THAT HAVE HAPPENED ISN’T GETTING OUT THERE AND WE NEED TO GET THE GOOD THINGS OUT LET ME TELL YOU WHERE THE GOOD THINGS ARE HANDLING AND SLAUGHTER, OR HARVEST, WHATEVER YOU WANT TO CALL IT THOSE ARE THE TWO AREAS WHERE GOOD THINGS HAVE HAPPENED UNFORTUNATELY THEY GOT SOME DAIRY STUFF THAT REALLY MADE CATTLE SLAUGHTER LOOK BAD THERE HASN’T BEEN ANYTHING REALLY TERRIBLE ABOUT PIG SLAUGHTER WE’VE GOT TO GET IT OUT TO PEOPLE THE THINGS WE ARE DOING I’M AT THE POINT RIGHT NOW THAT I WANT TO PUT VIDEO CAMERAS IN PLACES. LETS STREAM IT OUT TO THE TOUR WEB PAGE MAP OF THE U-S COMES UP AND YOU CAN CLICK ON DIFFERENT PLANTS YOU CAN CLICK ON SOME PIG FARMS OR WHATEVER YOU CAN SEE WHAT IS GOING ON INSIDE BECAUSE YOU HAVE ACTIVIST GROUPS WHO WOULD LIKE TO BELIEVE THAT EVERYBODY HITS PIGS WITH GATE RODS THAT IS SIMPLY NOT TRUE THAT’S LIKE SAYING EVERYBODY DRIVES DRUNK..THAT’S NOT TRUE AG HAS DONE A ROTTEN JOB OF COMMUNICATING AND IT WAS VERY INTERESTING IN HOLLYWOOD THEY WERE JUST CURIOUS AND I’VE TALKED TO SOME PEOPLE WHO CHOOSE NOT TO EAT MEAT YOU KNOW WHAT MY CHEMISTRY IS SUCH THAT IF I DON’T HAVE SOME ANIMAL PROTEIN IN THE MORNING AND I SUPPORT THE PORK INDUSTRY ESPECIALLY WHEN I’M TRAVELING GOT TO HAVE SOME BACON AND I FIND THAT IF I DON’T SUPPORT THAE ANIMAL INDUSTRY IN THE INDUSTRY IN THE MORNING BY 10 O’CLOCK IN THE MORNING I’M LIGHT-HEADED AND I DON’T FUNCTION I’M O POSITIVE BLOOD AND MY CHEMISTRY HAS GOT TO HAVE ANIMAL PROTEIN. AND I’VE TALKED TO OTHER O BLOOD TYPES I DON’T HAVE ANY PROOF OF THAT I THINK OTHER PEOPLE TOLERATE A VEGAN DIET REALLY WELL BUT THEN YOU NEED TO BE THINKING TEARING UP THE FIELDS IN SOUTH AMERICA TO MAKE SOYBEAN MONOCULTURES IS THAT THE GREATEST THING TO DO WHEN YOU LOOK AT RANGELAND AND SOME OF THE LANDS HERE IN NEBRASKA THE ONLY THING YOU CAN DO WITH SOME OF THAT LAND IS RAISE RUMINANT ANIMALS ON IT RUMINANT ANIMALS HAVE GOT A PLACE IN SUSTAINABLE AG I’VE BEEN DOING A LOT OF TALKS AT GRAZING CONFERENCES I’M REALLY INTERESTED TO SEE YOU ARE GETTING A NEW GRASSLAND PROGRAM I THINK THAT IS EXCELLENT GREEN: I THINK THERE IS A QUESTION UP TOP QUESTION: YES I HAVE A QUESTION ABOUT AS A HANDLER WHERE… WHAT KIND OF FRAME OF MIND SHOULD I BE IN WHEN I ENTER INTO THE PEN OR WHEN I START WORKING WITH THE CATTLE AS I KNOW THAT FOR MYSELF A COW THAT DOESN’T GO THROUGH THE GATE AFTER HANGING OUT FOR TWENTY MINUTES. GRANDIN: NOW IS THIS A FEEDLOT PEN YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT QUESTION: WELL IN A CORRAL SO WE’LL SAY JUST WORKING THEM THROUGH A-I ING OR EVEN MOVING THEM FROM ONE PASTURE TO ANOTHER AND TAKING THEM THROUGH BARBED-WIRE GATE GRANDIN: ONE OF THE THINGS THAT IS REALLY IMPORTANT ON PASTURE ROTATION IS YOU WANT TO CONTROL THE MOVEMENT NOW YOU GET INTO THE AREAS WHERE THEY ARE MOVING ALL THE TIME PEOPLE ARE LEADING CATTLE [1341] BUT YOU WANT A CONTROLLED MOVEMENT GOING THROUGH THE GATE SOME PEOPLE WANT TO HERD THEM OTHER PEOPLE WANT TO LEAD THEM I DON’T CARE WHICH WAY YOU DO IT BUT YOU WANT A CONTROLLED MOVEMENT BECAUSE THE MOTHER COWS RUN THROUGH THE GATE DITCH NEW BABIES THAT’S NOT VERY GOOD FOR THE CALVES AND I’D SO WHAT YOU WANT TO DO IS GET A CERTAIN OUTCOME AND I’M FINDING WHEN I GO IN THE AREAS WHERE THEY ARE DOING VERY INTENSE PASTURE ROTATION A LOT OF THOSE PEOPLE ARE LEADING CATTLE NOW RATHER THAN DRIVING THEM AND WHEN THEY COME UP TO THE GATE IF THEY ARE MOBBING THE GATE THEY DON’T OPEN THE GATE UNTIL THE ANIMALS GET BACK A LITTLE BIT AND STAND AND THEN THEY OPEN THE GATE NOW YOU HAVE TO HAVE MANNERS BEFORE WE OPEN THE GATE THE BOTTOM LINE IS YOU WANT CALM MOVEMENT THERE IS A LOT OF DISCUSSION ABOUT EXACTLY HOW TO DO THING THINGS, THERE ARE A LOT OF CONSULTANTS OUT THERE I’M GOING TO GO MORE ON THE OUTCOME AND I WANT TO GET A CALM WALKING MOVEMENT GREEN: I THINK THERE IS A QUESTION RIGHT DOWN FRONT QUESTION: I THANK YOU FOR COMING TONIGHT I HAD A QUESTION ABOUT YOU MENTIONED A LOT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE CATTLE AND MAN CATTLE AND THE HORSE AND ONE OF THE QUESTIONS I HAVE IS IF WE HAVE INTERACTION EVERY DAY WITH A FEED TRUCK GOING THROUGH THE FEEDLOT WOULD IT BE IN YOUR BEST INTEREST TO MAYBE TAKE THAT DOOR OFF THAT FEED TRUCK AND PUT A PLEXIGLASS ON THERE SO THE CATTLE CAN SEE THE BODY LANGUAGE OF THE HUMAN MOVING THROUGH THE FEEDLOT EVERY DAY GRANDIN: WELL THE THING IS A GUY IN A TRUCK A GUY IS GOING TO VIEW THAT AS A GUY IN A TRUCK SEE PIGS WILL DIFFERENTIATE A MAN IN AN ALLEY AND A MAN THAT ACTUALLY WALKS THROUGH THEIR PENS AND THERE’S NOTHING WORSE ON LOADING DAY THEN THE FIRST TIME PIGS EXPERIENCE SOMEONE IN THEIR PENS AND YOU GO TO LOAD THEY ARE SCREECHING AND GOING UP THE WALLS NO YOU NEED WALK THROUGH THEM. THEY DIFFERENTIATE FROM A GUY IN A TRUCK AND A GUY IN A PEN AND IT IS NOT GOING TO WORK BY WHAT YOU …. AND OF COURSE IN A FEEDYARD YOU’RE USING HORSES AND PEN RIDING, ITS TOO MUCH WALKING BUT WHEN YOU BRING THE CATTLE UP TO PROCESS THEM TO VACCINATE AND STUFF..HAVE SOME EXPERIENCE WITH GOING IN AND OUT OF GATES WITH A MAN ON FOOT I DON’T WANT TO HAVE THEM COME TO THE SLAUGHTER PLANT OR HARVEST FACILITY, WHATEVER YOU WANT TO CALL IT AND THEY MEET THE FIRST MAN ON FOOT THERE THERE HAVE BEEN SOME PEOPLE RUN OVER AT THE PLANTS BECAUSE YOU GET IN A SMALL PEN AND THEY ARE BOUNCING BACK AND FORTH THEY CAN’T GET AWAY FROM THE MAN, IT IS REALLY SCARY YOU SEE SINCE THEY ARE VISUAL THINKERS THEY ARE VERY SPECIFIC ON HOW THEY VIEW THINGS AND EVEN IF I PUT A PLEXIGLASS DOOR ON A FEED TRUCK HE IS STILL A GUY IN A TRUCK THAT’S NOT THE SAME AS A GUY WALKING AROUND IN THE PEN AND THE THING WITH THE PIGS YOU GOT A GUY IN THE ALLEY HE IS RIGHT THERE NEXT TO THE PIGS BUT HE NEVER WENT INTO THE PEN I’VE SEEN CATTLE WHERE THE WATER TROUGH CLEANER COMES UP THE CENTER LINE OF THE PEN AND THE CATTLE DON’T MOVE WALKS INTO THE MIDDLE OF THE PEN AND THEY SCATTER AROUND ANIMALS NEED TO GET USE TO PEOPLE WALKING THROUGH THEM SO WHEN THEY GO DOWN THE SUPPLY CHAIN..LET’S SAY THE CATTLE LEAVING THE RANCH THEY AREN’T BOUNCING OFF THE WALLS AT THE AUCTION WHEN SOMEONE IS TRYING TO MOVE THEM ON FOOT IDEALLY THEY OUGHT TO BE TRAINED WITH A HORSE, A FOUR-WHEELER, AND ON FOOT AND I’M NOT A FAN OF DOGS AROUND THE CORRALS THAT TEACHES CATTLE TO KICK AND I HAVE ALMOST BEEN KILLED TWICE BY VERY DANGEROUS KICKING WHERE DOGS HAVE BEEN BITING CATTLE IN THE LEAD-UP CHUTE AND THEY CAN’T GET AWAY THEY WILL GIVE YOU BOTH BARRELS RIGHT IN THE HEAD IF YOU WANT SCARY HOW ABOUT BOTH BARRELS THIS CLOSE TO THE HEAD BEEN THERE TWICE ONCE IN TEXAS AND ONCE IN COLORADO AND THEN THE ANIMAL DID TAKE THE HARD HAT OFF THE GUY HIT THE RIM OF THE HARD HAT AND FLIPPED IT OFF BAD NEWS GREEN: QUESTION OVER HERE AND THEN BACK HERE AND WE’LL WRAP UP GRANDIN: AND THEN I’LL BE OUT THERE AT THE BOOK TABLE. GREEN: THAT’S MY LINE, TEMPLE QUESTION: RONNIE I WAS GOING TO GIVE HER A WHOLE NEW LIST OF THINGS TO TALK ABOUT HERE. SORRY WE ARE RUNNING OUT OT TIME HAVE YOU NOTICED THAT TEMPLE IS HARDLY EVER TO GET TO SAY WHAT SHE REALLY WANTS TO SAY GREEN: I HAVE NOTICED THAT QUESTION: WE INVITED HER INTO A MEETING IN DES MOINES. I WAS A WELFARE CHAIRMAN AT N-P-P-C AND DREADING THE DARN MEETING AS IT TURNED OUT TEMPLE WAS A SWEETHEART AND I CALLED YOU THAT TEMPLE..HAVE YOU EVER BEEN CALLED THAT IN PUBLIC BEFORE. TEMPLE: A SWEETHEART? …WELL THANK YOU FOR CALLING ME A SWEETHEART. QUESTION: ON THE OTHER HAND, THE JOHN MCGLONE FROM TEXAS TECH WAS A KNOTHEAD. BUT HE CONTINUALLY TRIED TO DEMONSTRATE HOW ANIMALS COULD BE RAISED, WASN’T NECESSARILY APPROPRIATE OR GOOD, BUT OPTIONS THAT COULD WORK AND THIS IS WHERE OUR INDUSTRY ON THE SWINE SIDE IS GOING NOW WE ARE TRYING TO DO THINGS THAT CAN WORK TEMPLE: WELL WE GOT TO DO STUFF THAT WORKS WE’VE GOT TO DO THINGS REASONABLE THINGS THAT ARE GOING TO WORK QUESTION: NOW IN SPAIN I WAS JUST THERE LAST YEAR YOU KNOW THEY AGREED TO ANIMAL WELFARE ISSUES AND HANDLING OF SOWS AND SO FORTH IN A FAR-OFF DATE BUT ALL OF A SUDDEN THAT DATE CAME AND THERE IS A LOT OF THESE SMALL PRODUCERS WHO HAD NO MONEY TO CONVERT THEIR FACILITIES TO THE GROUP HOUSING AND THEY ARE GOING OUT OF BUSINESS. TEMPLE: WELL I THINK ONE OF THE THINGS WITH GROUP HOUSING IS YOU GOT TO GIVE A LONG LEAD TIME LET’S TAKE SMITHFIELD BACK EAST THAT STUFF WAS THIRTY YEARS OLD AND RUSTED OUT YOU’VE GOT TO GIVE PEOPLE TIME FOR EQUIPMENT TO WEAR OUT AND AND YOU REPLACE IT WHEN IT IS RUSTED OUT. I TOTALLY DEFEND AT LEAST A TEN YEAR LEAD TIME LET STUFF WEAR OUT QUESTION: THE WHOLE IDEA OF WELFARE STARTED IN THE NORTH OF LONDON WITH TWO MEAT MARKETS THAT WANTED TO OUTDO EACH OTHER SO THEY STARTED PROMOTING THE CONCEPT OF WELFARE FRIENDLY ANIMALS ANYWAY WE HAVE A BIG P-R PROBLEM AHEAD YET TEMPLE: THE THING IS YOU GOT PEOPLE OUT IN HOLLYWOOD ASKING WHAT FEEDLOTS ARE I WENT DOWN TO OUR SISTER SCHOOL..UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AND I HAD AN UNDERGRADUATE THAT SAID TO ME THIS IS WHAT SHE SAID… IF MEAT IS SOLD TO WHOLE FOODS THEN THE CATTLE GREW UP ON A RANCH IF THE MEAT GOES TO A REGULAR SUPERMARKET THEN THE CATTLE ARE BORN IN A FEEDLOT THAT WAS TWO YEARS AGO THIS IS THE KIND OF…THEY JUST DON’T KNOW THEN YOU GOT THE EGGS GROW ON TREES AND MILK GROWS IN THE BACK OF THE GROCERY STORE THAT’S JUST RIDICULOUS AND NOW LET’S LOOK AT WHERE THERE HAS BEEN SOME BRIGHT SPOTS ON P-R FAIR OAKS FARM BEAUTIFUL DAIRY OUTSIDE OF ILLINOIS THEY HAVE BUS TOURS THAT COME IN THERE THEY HAVE A CALVING CAM THEY ARE BUILDING PIG ADVENTURE PEOPLE CAN COME IN AND LOOK THROUGH GLASS ENCLOSED SWINE CONFINEMENT BUILDING AND SEE HOW PIGS ARE RAISED WE’VE GOT TO GET RID OF THE MYSTERY SHEDS BUT WE’VE GOT TO DO A BETTER JOB. I JUST LOOKED AT A NEW PUBLICATION THAT CAME OUT FROM N-P-P-C TALKING ABOUT WE CARE AND OUT OF ALL THE PICTURES THEY HAD IT SHOWED THE OUTSIDES OF FARMS AND ONLY ONE PICTURE INSIDE THE FARM OF A SOW AND SOME PIGLETS WHY AREN’T THEY SHOWING THE INSIDES OF BARNS WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO SHOW IT AND IF IT IS THINGS THAT YOU ARE SQUIRMING SUCH AS I KNOW THAT CASTRATING BABY PIGS ISN’T THAT WONDERFUL AND I HOPE THE NEW PFIZER PRODUCE IS SUCCESSFUL I’VE BEEN A BIG PROPONENT OF THAT MAYBE WE WON’T HAVE TO CASTRATE BABY PIGS NOW I THINK WE’VE GOT TO LOOK AT EVERYTHING WE DO AND SAY IF I BROUGHT MY WEDDING GUESTS OUT HERE FROM NEW YORK OR CHICAGO WHAT ARE THEY GOING TO THINK. A WELL-RUN SLAUGHTER PLANT PASSES THE TEST I HAVE PERSONALLY TAKEN PEOPLE ON A LOT OF TOURS AND ONE OF THE THINGS I DO IS I HAVE THE WATCH THE TRUCKS UNLOAD AND THEY ARE AMAZED AT HOW QUIET THE CATTLE COME OFF AND THEN I HAVE WATCH THEM GO UP THE CHUTE AND THEY GO WOW, THEY JUST WALK RIGHT UP THE CHUTE THAT IS THE WAY IT SHOULD BE RONNIE: LAST QUESTION RIGHT HERE AT THE FRONT QUESTION:……. AND YOU DID TALK A LITTLE ABOUT THE RANCHERS. TEMPLE: FEEDLOT HANDLING HAS GOTTEN A LOT BETTER…A LOT BETTER QUESTION: DO YOU BELIEVE TO SUM UP EVERYTHING IT ALL NEEDS TO START WITH THE RANCHERS WHEN THEY ARE FIRST CALVED AND INTRODUCING THE YOUNG CALVES WITH PENS AND HANDLING EQUIPMENT. TEMPLE: YES I THINK RANCHERS NEED TO BE DOING THAT AND IN FACT MOST OF THE PEOPLE THAT ARE DOING LOW STRESS CATTLE HANDLING WORKSHOPS EMPHASIZE WALKING OUT AMONG THE COWS GETTING THEM CALMED DOWN TAKING YOUNG HEIFERS THAT YOU ARE GOING TO KEEP WALKING THEM THROUGH THE CHUTES FEEDING THEM IN THE CORRALS GETTING THEM USED TO GOING THROUGH THE FACILITY SO THAT FIRST EXPERIENCE IN THE CORRAL IS NOT JUST GETTING SMACKED AROUND IN THE SQUEEZE CHUTE WE DO HAVE TO PUT THEM IN THE SQUEEZE CHUTE BUT JUST WALKING THEM THROUGH AND GETTING THEM HABITUATED AND THERE IS QUITE A BIT OF RESEARCH NOW THAT SUPPORTS GETTING ANIMALS HABITUATED TO HANDLING PROCEDURES WE NEED TO BE DOING THAT AND RANCH HANDLING HAS GOTTEN BETTER CATTLE HANDLING IS THE BRIGHT SPOT AND THE THING THAT FRUSTRATES ME IS THE PUBLIC DOESN’T KNOW ABOUT IT THAT IS WHAT FRUSTRATES ME I FIXED THE SLAUGHTER PLANTS, THE HARVEST FACILITIES, WHATEVER YOU WANT TO CALL THEM AND THE ONE ONES UP MAIN ONES UP ON THE INTERNET IS ALL THE AWFUL STUFF HALF DEAD DAIRY COWS THAT SHOULDN’T EVEN BE THERE NOW THAT IS WHY WE DID THE TEMPLE GRANDIN BEEF PLANT VIDEO AND WE ARE NOW WORKING ON THE TEMPLE GRANDIN PORK PLANT VIDEO GREEN: I HAVE ONE LAST WILL A ONE LAST QUESTION I’M GOING TO ASK AS THE MODERATOR I MENTIONED THAT I HAVE KNOWN TEMPLE A LONG TIME AND HAVE ADMIRED HER AS A FELLOW ANIMAL SCIENTIST THERE ARE A LOT OF STORIES AROUND ABOUT TEMPLE AND ABOUT HOW SHE CHOSE TO PUT HERSELF IN THE PLACE OF THE ANIMAL TO BETTER UNDERSTAND WHAT THE ANIMAL IS EXPERIENCING I THINK YOU REFERRED TO THAT TONIGHT IN ONE OF YOUR SLIDES GIVE US A COUPLE EXAMPLES OF WAYS THAT YOU DID THAT WHAT ARE SOME PLACES WHERE YOU TRIED TO EXPERIENCE…TEMPLE: WELL I DID GO THROUGH CATTLE DIP BATH ONE TIME AND I DON’T RECOMMEND THAT. GREEN: THAT IS ONE OF THE LEGENDS. TEMPLE: I DON’T RECOMMEND THAT AND BUT ONE THING I DO RECOMMEND DOING WATCH WHEN YOU ARE WORKING WITH CATTLE WHERE THE STOP WHAT ARE THEY LOOK AT WHAT ARE THE POINTING THEIR EARS AND EYES AT..IF THEY ARE CALM THEY WILL POINT THEIR EARS AND EYES RIGHT TOWARDS SOMETHING SOMETHING THEY MIGHT BE AFRAID OF. THEY WILL SHOW YOU THE THINGS IN THE CHUTE THEY DON’T LIKE AND I FIND LOTS OF TIMES YOU MIGHT HAVE TO TRACK DOWN FOUR OR FIVE DISTRACTIONS LIKE MAYBE YOU HAVE TO FIX THE BLACK HOLE EFFECT THEN GET RID OF GATE THAT JIGGLES AND THEN YOU GOT SOMETHING THAT BUMPS THEM HERE AND YOU GOT TO CHANGE THAT YOU MAY HAVE TO FIX FOUR OR FIVE REALLY SMALL THINGS AND THEN THINGS ARE GOING TO WORK A WHOLE LOT BETTER BE VERY OBSERVANT OF SMALL VISUAL DETAILS HANDLE SMALL GROUPS USE FOLLOWING BEHAVIOR AND GET YOUR MOUTH SHUT NO WHISTLING AND NO SCREAMING REALLY, REALLY STRESSFUL OKAY I WANT TO THANK EVERYBODY FOR COMING GREEN: ONE OF THE TRADITIONS THAT WE STARTED WITH THE HEUERMANN LECTURES LAST YEAR IS TO GIVE EACH LECTURER A MEDAL TO REMEMBER THEIR TIME COMING TO THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA THAT SIGNIFIES THE HEUERMANN LECTURES. IT IS A PICTURE OF A TREE OF LIFE AND TEMPLE WE WOULD LIKE TO PRESENT YOU WITH YOUR HEUERMANN LECTURE MEDAL SO YOU REMEMBER COMING WITH US AND WE’LL GET A PICTURE WITH THE HEUERMANNS HERE LATER TEMPLE IS GOING TO BE OUTSIDE FOR A BOOK SIGNING AND FOR YOU TO HAVE A CHANCE TO VISIT WITH HER IN THE LOBBY. THERE WILL BE A RECEPTION OUT THERE ON YOUR WAY OUT WE ASK YOU TO JOIN US PLEASE JOIN US FOR THE NEXT HEUERMANN LECTURE WHICH IS FEBRUARY THE 12TH HERE IN THIS SAME FACILITY IT IS AT 3:30 IN THE AFTERNOON ON THAT TUESDAY WHEN PAMELA RONALD AND RAOUL ADAMCHAK A HUSBAND WIFE TEAM FACULTY MEMBERS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT DAVIS WILL COME TO TALK TO US ABOUT GENETICS IN THE FUTURE OF FARMING SO PLEASE JOIN US THEN FEBRUARY TWELFTH AT 3:30 THANKS FOR BEING HERE TONIGHT.

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