I want to begin with something that Churchill wrote in the 1930s. And he said this: “One of the signs of a great society is the diligence with which it passes culture from one generation to the next. “When one generation no longer “passes on the things that are dear to it — it’s “heroes and their stories in its religious faith — it’s in effect saying that past is null and void. It’s of no value.” He goes on to say: “That leaves young people feeling a lack of direction and a lack of purpose, and “opens them to the dictum of Karl Marx — that our people, derived of their history, are easily persuaded.” Have we stripped our young people of purpose and meaning, and left them open to being bullied around? Well there’s there’s two things about that, that I think are really worth worth laying out. The first is an analysis of the purpose of memory. Now because people think that the purpose of memory is to remember the past, and that’s NOT the purpose of memory. The purpose of memory is to extract, out from the past, lessons to structure the future. And that that’s the purpose of ‘personal’ memory. And so you’re done with a memory when you’ve extracted out the information that you can use to guide yourself properly in the future. So if you have a ‘traumatic’ memory, for example, that’s really obsessing you — if you analyze that memory to the point where you figured out how you put yourself at risk and you can determine how you might avoid that in the future, then the emotion associated with that goes away. So memory has a very pragmatic function and ‘cultural’ memory is the same thing. Is that we need to extract out stories from our past that structure our future. And we need that because first of all, if you don’t have a purpose, let’s say, it isn’t that your life becomes neutral in a meaningless sense; it’s that your life becomes characterized by unbearable suffering, because the baseline condition of life is something like unbearable suffering. And what you have to set against that is a noble and worthwhile purpose. And hopefully hopefully your determination of that purpose is buttress — to some degree — by the wisdom of the past, because you can’t conjure something like that up on your own. And if you provide people with nobility of purpose, then they can tolerate the suffering of existence without becoming entirely corrupted by it. And cultures that don’t do that..it isn’t even so much that they die, it’s that cultures that don’t do that are DEAD. They’re DONE. They don’t have a story anymore. And they don’t have a call to adventure. And then, well, then everyone suffers stupidly as a consequence. It’s a very bad thing. So Churchill made the same observation that many of the great psychologists and philosophers made in the early part of the 20th century. It’s like: Bring the story forward. And and propagate it. And make it the most noble possible story. And then you motivate people to transcend themselves — which they need to do. So yes, he’s exactly right in his diagnosis.