La cultura Caral en 5 minutos

La cultura Caral en 5 minutos

We present to CARAL CULTURE, The oldest civilization in America. The Caral culture or civilization was discovered in 1996 thanks to the work of a team of archaeologists headed by Ruth Shady, although the existence of monumental sites in the valley of supe they were from the beginning of the 20th century, it was only with the excavations of the archeologist That the pre-ceramic nature of this sacred city was affirmed. It arose in the period called Late Archaic or higher, reaching the Lower Formative period, approximately between the years 3000 to 1800 B.C. Caral’s finding gave a new approach about the rise of the ancient civilizations of Peru and America, since until that moment Chavín was considered as the cultural focus and parent culture of Peru. It developed on the north central coast, specifically in the Supe River Valley in the province of Barranca in Lima, place where 20 settlements have been identified, eight of them larger than the others, among which the sacred city of Caral stands out for its complexity, the one that has given the name to this important civilization. Caral was a theocratic city-state, where each settlement was represented by a main curaca, the same that headed a network of reciprocity and exchange with the curacas of other contemporary peoples. The curaca had to have astronomy knowledge for the elaboration of the holiday calendar as well as ordering the orientation in the construction of public buildings. Within its structure, the population was divided into social classes organized in a hierarchical manner, with the curaca and ruling class above the ayllus, family communities that produced so much for themselves as for the tribute they should pay to their authorities. There was also specialization in certain economic activities like fishing, agriculture (Growing pumpkin, pacay, peanut, chili, potato, corn, cotton, among others) and trade, exchanging their products through barter, even with remote areas such as the mountains, the jungle and the Ecuadorian coast. Religion was the cohesion factor to keep the inhabitants of the valley together, its religious center was the Sacred City of Caral, place where the most important religious rituals were performed like the ceremonial calendar festivities. The most imposing construction of this city is the so-called “Greater Pyramid”, located in a dominant position within the city planning, where at the top was the main room where a stove worked in which the food delivered as offerings were burned. In this enclosure the body of an apparently sacrificed adult was found, buried naked with cut hands and fingers. Within its cultural contributions we find to architecture, sculpture, music and textiles. The inhabitants of Caral built extensive cities with monumental buildings made with stone, mud and plant materials such as shicras, technique that consisted of the use of bags made with vegetable fiber Stuffed with rocks of different sizes. The predominant forms are the stepped pyramids, sunken circular or semi-circular squares, with stairs leading to places and rooms on top for rituals and ceremonies. Also, having not found offensive weapons nor defensive structures in their constructions, we could call Caral As a civilization of peace. We also find the important pyramid of Huanca on whose front is the “huanca” monolith, an impressive monolith over 2.15 meters high north of the entrance directly related to astronomical aspects and ceremonials of life in Caral. As for the sculpture, although no manifestations of pottery or pottery have been found, it has been established that they modeled anthropomorphic idols with clay, the same ones that have been found fragmented and would be part of rituals related to the renovation of buildings and the fertility cult. Within the set of remains found in this archaeological site, wind musical instruments were discovered like bugles, transverse flutes and 4 antaras. Instruments made with guanaco bones, deer, condor, pelican, etc. Possibly music accompanied ritual and social practices. The development of the textile industry was thanks to the cultivation of cotton since with the fiber of this product simple dresses were woven, no decoration under the technique of interlacing and torzal. Shoes, bags, ropes, fishing nets, etc. were also made. The finding of an adult woman with a funeral trousseau related to textile They would show that women developed economic activities in the same way as men. For this woman, it has been called “textile teacher” In this context we must mention that in the pyramid called “The Gallery” a textile rest was found whose structure resembles what we know as “quipu” which was the set of threads with knots that the Inca culture used as a recording or statistical instrument. This finding would represent its millenary use since before the existence of Tahuantinsuyo. Around 1800 B.C. all settlements of the Caral culture were allegedly abandoned as a result of natural disasters like earthquakes and the phenomenon of the child, The latter would have caused a great collapse in the agriculture of the inhabitants of the valley. Nevertheless, the principle of reciprocity, the ceremonial calendar as well as family organization, would serve as the basis for later Andean civilizations as in the case of Wari or the Quechuas of Cuzco.

11 thoughts on “La cultura Caral en 5 minutos

  1. Esperemos que te expandas no solo en cultura del Perú si no en culturas importantes internacionales
    Como mesopotania , persas , grecia , aimaras

  2. ¡Suscrito! Felicitaciones chicos, todos sus vídeos serán compartidos en la página de Facebook del centro cultural que gestiono.

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