Mod-01 Lec-03 Social System and Organizational Culture

Mod-01 Lec-03 Social System and Organizational Culture


Good morning students. Today we will continue
with chapter three of the session organizational behavior which we started, and we came to
know like what is organizational behavior? Then what leads to effectiveness of the organization.
Today chapter three we will deal with social systems and organizational culture. Here in
this chapter we will mainly try to find out like what is the importance of a social system
and why organization is a social system, what we do within a social system, and next we
will come to know about the organizational culture various factors involved in organizational
culture, how it is related with organizational performance and other things. So, the objective of this chapter mainly is
understanding the social system, the psychological contract, social culture, role, status, understanding
organizational culture, organization socialization, characteristics of effective socialization,
impact of organizational culture on performance and satisfaction, creating an ethical organizational
culture, creating a customer-responsive culture, spirituality and organizational culture, influencing
culture change, sustaining the culture-mergers, organizational culture and cultural leadership.
So, this whole lecture will be spread through two hours, and in the first hour we will cover
till the status of the organization, and in the next lecture we will continue with understanding
organizational culture and topics thereafter. So, to start with we will try to understand
what is a social system? Social system is nothing but it is a complex set of human relationships
which are interacting in many ways. If we come to understand in a social system there
are number of people as we enter as people enters the organization it is number of people
they come together with their own abilities, personality factor, their value system, their
attitudes, their inherent inbuilt ideas about themselves, and the common interact with other
people. With these predetermined setups two people come and interact and they exchange
their views. As a result what happen is a group formation happens. One person interact
with the other person, the second person interacts with the third person.
As a result a small group is formed, and these interaction maybe of various nature. It may
be lack of co-operative in nature, it may be conflicting in nature, there can be a power
dynamics within this interaction. So, interactions are of various natures, and after that interaction
what happens small groups are formed. These groups are again it is a small system it is
a sub-system of a larger group. This larger group again is a subsystem of the whole organization. So, what happens if you can just see like
if you consider this to be the organization, the bigger circle to be the organization;
within this organization small groups form. These are called subsystems and what happens
these subsystems are also interacting with each other, and within this again there are
smaller subsystems which are interacting with each other. This whole interaction this whole
pattern of interactions what happens one from the other this effect on this, these as a
larger group has an effect on the external environment; external environment has an effect
on this subsystem or the system which we call over here as the organization leads to a broad
spectrum of behavior and what happens? These relationships can have a direct or indirect
these interactions can have direct or indirect effect on the behavior of a single person,
this large group can affect the behavior of this person over here. This group can affect
directly affect the behavior of person over here; this group can also indirectly affect
the behavior a person who is within this group. So, in social systems what happen? A set of
behavior patterns develop which may directly or indirectly affect the behavior of others
present within the same system or different subsystem and what happens? Next point is
all are mutually interdependent; all subparts of the organization are mutually interdependent
each affecting the behavior of the other. Now this whole system is in interaction with
the external environment, and as a result what happens? It gives like signals to the
external environment, and it also receives input from the external environment. As a
result what happens? There is again dynamic social relationship, the changes in the external
environment affects the organization. Organization also sometimes brings certain changes and
it is sends ripples to the external environment and awareness is generated, interest is generated
in the environment about that organization. And when this whole interaction this whole
interaction as you see is maintained in a stable state when there is a balance between
this, the signals send the inputs and the throughputs and the outputs; when there is
balance between all this things then what we called is a state of social equilibrium.
You call it as a state of social equilibrium. When there is a balance between the working
balance, between these interactions of the subparts as we mentioned over here then this
stage is called social equilibrium. Not this as you understand if you can remember what
we discussed in the chapter one of the session is individuals come with their own input;
they become members of groups, groups also interact with each other as a result and they
interact with organizational system which interacts with the environment.
And as a result environment as a whole has an effect on each of these parts, and as a
result what happens an output in the form of human and organizational performance is
what is obtained at the end. Now when this is that when this organization is a social
system is a big social system what happens? Next important point which occurs over here
which is very much connected with this is the concept of psychological contract. Psychological
contract you can understand from this, this word itself consists of two subparts; one
is psychological and the other is contract. When we are speaking of the word contract
it means like there is a mutuality of understanding like one will provide something to the other;
it is give and takes out of relationship. You give me certain things, you agree to give
me certain things and in return I agree to give you certain things. This is called contract.
Now what happens? When an employee joins an organization the contract that he enters into
the organization is of course, you have to sign a bond like rules and regulations that
you have to abide by as a result of being in the organization that you sign a bond when
you enter and in return of it organization promises you to give certain financial benefits
in terms of your salary and other things. That is the usual employment contract that
people enter into when the first step into the organization, but when they start staying
within the organization and also some expectations which are not generally mentioned at the time
when you are joining, but it is expected from you from the day one is certain it is both
way expectation; you also do not mention like I expect this when you join an organization,
organization also does not mention that you are expected to do certain things.
These are unwritten unsaid expectations as you may call and these are called psychological
contracts means beyond the financial contract that you are having with your organization
there is another form of contract which is called the psychological contract which is
expected of an employee from the employer like I expect you to do certain things; also
in return employee wants certain things from the employer. These are expectations that
you join with and these are expectations from you when you join an organization. So, it
is an expectation from both the parties the employee side and the employer side. So, we
will come to know what is psychological contract? Major work on this area has been done by Guest
in 2002. We will have a look into this; what is psychological contract? Psychological contract
is the mutual obligation; this word is very important.
Mutual obligation and expectation of the two parties both for employer and the employee
from each other, and it is more influential than the formal contract because it provides
it leads to your satisfaction within the organization whether you love to be within that organization
whether you laugh to work within that organization depends to a great extent on the fulfillment
of the psychological contract from the employee to the employee, and whether the employees
also loved by the employer or not, whether you become a star performer or not depends
to a large extent on the employers expectation from you and you fulfilling that expectation. So, what you can see is Guest; he defined
psychological contract as the perceptions of the two parties employee and employer of
what their mutual obligations are towards each other, and it is like it is suggested
that it depends a lot on the employer’s perception of how to deal with the management.
We dealt with effectiveness chapter in the last class in a few point and if you can remember
we told much about the changes brought in the adaptively ten other things.
So, it depends to a large extent on the management practices adapted by the organization to make
the environment of the organization, the more like where employees can perform well more
employee friendly and also from the employees perspective it depends a lot on the justice
and fairness given to them within the organization, how you are distributing your reward, who
is getting the reward, what you expect, what do you expect too much from us; all these
factors small, small factors which shows like whether the organization is just unfair matters
a lot to the employees, and when this psychological contract is positive it leads to better commitment
and satisfaction on the part of the employees, and it leads to positive business performance. We will now have a look into the different
kinds of commitment and if we can see like on the employees promise to work hard, to
uphold company reputation, maintain high levels of attendance and punctuality, show loyalty
to the organizations, work extra hours when required, develop new skills and update old
ones, be flexible by taking on a colleague’s work; maybe it is for example, be courteous
to clients and colleagues, be honest, come up with new ideas. These are what employers
expect of the employee and they promise to do so. Next is employers promise to provide;
pay commensurate with performance, opportunities for training and development, opportunities
for promotion, recognition for innovation or new idea, feedback on performance, in providing
the employees with interesting tasks, and attractive benefits package, respectful treatment,
reasonable job security, a pleasant and safe work environment.
Now of all these things which is listed on the right hand side where employers promise
to provide; now with the changing time some of these things especially reasonable job
security with the changing nature of the job, with the changing demands, this reasonable
job security is what may be employers cannot provide and also with the changing nature
of the employees this is what they do not want also. As a result the concept of psychological
contract has also evolved like it has undergone some change from what we call the traditional
concept of psychological contract to the present time when we are dealing the concept of psychological
contract and it has undergone some changes. And now what we deal with mainly is first
is very important like employability. So, as job security cannot be guaranteed due to
the changing nature of the job changing demands of the situation because we are now in a globalized
atmosphere. So, as employers cannot be provide job security parse, what they can look into
is developing the employability of the employee, means developing a portfolio of skills, knowledge,
competencies, which will make them more marketable. So, it is a focus on human resource development,
training new and upgrading your skills so that even if I cannot employ you due to various
reasons, but you are well equipped to find any other job in the market place according
to your like skill set that you have the competences that you have.
Next is what is called a carrier. Now when you are talking of carrier and the carrier
ladder, promotions and what happens is that in organizations due to de-layering, due to
flattening of the organization as there are not too many of hierarchies present, the concept
of ladder is changing and in a flatten organization what happens is may be promotions cannot be
based on if the part of promotion is not very smooth or you do not get that fast promotions
because there are not too many hierarchies. So, what employers can look into is like job
enrichment and enlargement concepts, and in that case what happens like you have to look
into while recruiting employees like what is the need of the employees, focus more on
this in the forthcoming chapters when we come to know like there are different types of
employees according to their personality pattern and what is the nature of that employee which
is going to suit my organization properly. If I cannot provide good carrier ladder as
per the expectation if a person has very high expectation and I cannot provide that to the
employee then later on may be that person will become very dissatisfied with joining
that organization. So, I have to find out what motivates that person, what is what that
person is seeking from the organization in terms of carrier when that person is joining
the organization, and this comes under the purview of carrier development and management.
When we were talking about work-life balance it is an important link like people want now
to distribute time between their family and their work place, and if the organization
allows you to do the thing, the structure of the organization, the policies that are
present in the organization allows you to distribute your time properly between and
keep a balance between work-life and your family life.
People get more satisfaction from it, and it strengthens the psychological contract,
because you are you as organization is helping the employee to maintain a balance to become
a holistic employee a holistic person. So, that is very important and employee is not
just an employee; he has or she has other identities also as a family person, as a person
of a society member of certain other interest groups. Now the organization which helps the
person to balance all these identities to maintain a balance between all these roles,
then what happens? The person develops a positive feeling for the organization. As a result
psychological contract strengthens. And for organizational strategy planning,
psychological contract may have many implications like one major implication is for the process
fairness. This is one of the important issues like it is very important how you are doing
your things; what you give as end result is not that much important to the employees,
but what is more important is the process you take whether you are fair enough in your
judgment or whether you are taking like unfair practices, unfair measures, unfair distribution
of rewards, there is favoritism within this organization and not; this is what matters
a lot to the employees. So, process fairness is very important. Communications like whether
you are you as an organization is communicating to the employees, whether you are taking them
into confidence, whether you are treating them as one of very important part of your
whole entity, this is important. Next is management style which means like
what is the style that you take. If you remember we discussed about five management styles
in the early chapter whether you are authoritative in nature, whether you are like a collegial
nature; all these things whether the management is participative in nature or not. These practices
helps it sends a signal, it develops a comfort zone for the employees to work within the
organization, and if that comfort zone is developed that person develops a positive
feeling for the organization. So, management style helps to develop that comfort zone.
Managing expectations like what do you expect from your employees. Are these expectations
based on realistic assumption or not? Is it based on like the contextual whether you have
served, you are taken care of the contextual factors before you are expecting something
from your employee or you set very high expectations from your employee without realizing whether
that person is equipped enough to do that things, whether the organization can provide
the resources to the employee to do certain things that you expect from that employee.
If you see like we discussed like the social system; in the social system every subpart
is related to the other subpart and they directly or indirectly affect each other.
So, it is very important to set a realistic assumption about what you realistic expectation,
what you expect from your employees. And also from the employees perspective it is also
similarly applicable like managing in your expectations from your organizations like
if organization A is providing its employees with certain other things it is not always
true like organization be where you are working can provide you with the similar things, because
these organization has its own goals, it has its own constrains, it has its own environmental
challenges with which it can meet certain parts of your expectations, and may not meet
may not be equipped enough to meet certain parts of your expectations, and you have to
scale your expectations from the organization accordingly if you want to be with that same
organization. Measuring employee attitudes is also important,
because psychological contract helps to understand whether that person will be committed to that;
it is an important factor for commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and also
leading to behavioral patterns like employee engagement and organizational citizenship
behavior. So, these are important factors which are connected to each other from like
each of these concepts are connected to each other, and it may lead to major decisions
regarding how to change employee attitudes. Managing change like when you want to bring
certain changes in the organization people with psychological contracts like has this
is the major decision to be taken about what to do with these employees.
These psychological contract may sometimes lead to bring proper changes, greater degree
of OCB or which develops from higher degree of psychological contract may lead to certain
negative effects also where if you want to down size, if you want to like flatten down
sometimes and it is that you cannot move with all the employees that you have and it needs
different shape and structure to the organization to be given, then people with higher degree
of psychological contract which may lead to higher organizational citizenship behavior
sometimes may be you are like barriers act as barriers to bring in your changes for the
organization and accordingly you have to handle issues like how to bring in this changes,
because greater psychological contract with organization higher degree sometimes generates
a feeling of ownership in the employees sometimes which is expected, but over degree like too
much of ownership about the organization sometimes may hinder in the process of bringing organizational
changes. With this we move onto the concept of cultural
diversity which is another important factor like within when we discussed organization
as a social system. One of the major things was the discussion
about psychological contract. Now the next important issue is of course about cultural
diversity. Cultural diversity why this is an important issue, why now we are more concerned
with this? Because what happens the nature of the organization itself is changing when
it is it is functioning in a global environment; when it functioning in a global environment
what happens? We are getting different inputs from different nation means in different nations
where we are going to establishing our organizations and what happens national cultures vary, national
cultures vary. As a result sets of values, expectation vary. Peoples from different there
are peoples from different areas, perspectives, backgrounds, age, anti groups all come and
become part of your organization. So, what we call there is workforce diversity. Now
there is great work force diversity, and this we cannot ignore.
What we have to try to do is to utilize this work force diversity to channelize it with
the organizations performance so that the organization leads to excellence. Now to understand
this work force diversity what we have to understand is that there is a cultural diversity
between amongst the employees. This cultural diversity is what is diversity is in the different
identities. Cultural diversity occurs because there is difference in cultural identities.
Now what are these cultural identities is like the people come from different backgrounds
like they belong to different social class, gender wise they are different, then physiologically
like eye color, hair color, all these things are different, nationality is different.
And as a result they form certain identities of their own which are called cultural identities,
and they try to identify with this cultural identity. People of the same cultural identity
shared certain world views certain perceived views about like how everything is functioning.
These perceptions are called world views based on the cultural identities. Now these world
views are certain norms they have their certain norms, goal priorities, etcetera, certain
norms goal priority set and social cultural heritage; social cultural heritage which are
passed on like from one generation to the other generation
sociocultural factors. These helped all these
things lead to cultural identities, and people identify to different degrees with these cultural
identities. If you can see if you can follow over here
the diversity in cultural identities leads to work group functioning, and this also is
dependent on work group diversity perspective leading to some intermediate group outcomes
like quality of intergroup relations, degree of feeling valued and respected, meaning and
significance of cultural identity at work. We will try to explain the slide slowly so
that you can understand how this whole thing is functioning. Now, cultural identity we
have already mentioned like different groups identify different groups based on their backgrounds
identify to certain norms, goal priorities and sociocultural expectations. Now when we are talking of workgroup perspectives
first is the learning integration and learning perspective. In the integration and learning
perspective what the employees do is the inside skills and experiences that the employees
have developed as members of various cultural identity groups. These are very valuable resources
from them and they use it as a potential; they use it as a resources to rethink the
way they look into the world, they redefine their markets, products and strategies and
business practices that will advance the mission of the organization, means what happens this
perspective the integration and learning perspective it inter links, it links the asset, it looks
into workgroup, work force diversity. It is a major asset it is having and utilizes this
workforce diversity, links the various perspectives, the various thought processes about coming
from different cultures, the good of every culture into its mean mark processes and the
organization tries to excel by growing inputs from the good learning from all the culture.
And that it is what it is called integrated and integration and learning perspective,
because I am learning from every culture how to look into the world view, how to look in
to analyze the problem, how to find the solution to it, how to plan for future; all these different
cultures based on their cultural identities, their own worldview are providing the knowledge
about it, the different sets of people have different skills also with which they excel
and what I do I just make it come to a common place and holistically apply the skills to
further gain of the organization . Access-and-legitimacy perspective, an access-and-legitimacy
perspective on diversity is based in recognition that organization’s markets and constituencies
are culturally diverse. So, what it does is it tries to it knows like because the market
is culturally diverse. So, what I do is I just have a cultural diversity workforce diversity
not because I consider it as the resource important resource which will help me to grow
an excel from with it but because keeping this diversity will help me to connect with
a diverse market, and what I do not do; I do not incorporate the cultural competencies
of that I get from different backgrounds due to workforce diversity into the main system
of the organization. I maintain a workforce diversity just to get access into different
market setups, because if the market sees like my people are over there. So, some soft
corner is developed maybe I get access into that market, but I do not integrate this people
into my main system. Discrimination-and-fairness perspective, it
is characterized by a belief in a culturally diverse workforce as a moral imperative to
ensure justice and fair treatment to all members of society. So, it is just it is again I want
to appear to be a fair organization, I want to appear an equal opportunity organization,
I want to pose like that. So, I am just keeping a diverse workforce, I am maintaining a balance,
and there is no link with what I want to. I am not integrating this people neither I
am utilizing them for getting an access into the market nor I am trying to integrate them
into the main system of the organization. I am just keeping this diverse maintaining
this diversity, because I want to appear to be a fear and just organization. So, if you can see now when we are talking
of this perspective like of this intermediate group outcomes. So, these are the intermediate
group outcomes like what we call over co collect mediators. So, here what happens? Quality
of intergroup relations are when I am trying to integrate all the different viewpoints
together, conflict appears, conflict is there, you cannot deny that the organization there
is no conflict, but what happens? There can be an open discussion possible based on the
differences which are there, and they can be integrated; the conflict this can be a
functional conflict where we learn from each other and try to integrate those views into
the organization. In access-and-legitimacy perspective what
happens the conflict arises mainly due to the power and status accorded to different
groups present in the organization, and there is a little open discussion about it. Again
discrimination and fairness perspective is it is mainly due to the status and power imbalances,
and it is mainly from that how much share and how much importance one group is getting
from the organization, and how much importance the other group is not getting. The main issue
is regarding this power imbalance, and there is no open discussion sometimes about these
conflicts. Being fully valued and respected when we talking of integration and learning
all the employees feel they are valued and respected, because they are important contributors
to the organization; their competence is valued by the organization.
But in the other two perspectives likes they feel disrespected someone feel respected because
they get importance in the power dynamics, somebody feel disrespected and devalued, because
their competency is not utilized, they are not important because they have something
but their used as a means for certain things like either to get market share or the organization
wants to appear like a fair organization. So, the employees are not they ends in themselves
like they grow the competencies, they are not the end in themselves, but their diversity
is used as a means to get an end which is nowhere connected with their competencies
and other things. Significance of own racial identity at work,
so these are like resource for learning and teaching when you are talking of integration
and learning, but it is the source of and while we are talking of access and legitimacy
these are the sources of ambivalence for employees of other colors, and it is when you are talking
of discrimination means may be it is a source of powerlessness for people of color. Coming
to group functioning what happens and while we feel like it is an integration and learning
perspective; it is enhanced by the cross-cultural exposure, and people mutually learn from each
other. But in other two things while we are discussing access and legitimacy or discrimination
and fairness, if you see like group functioning is enhanced by increase in access and legitimacy,
or in other case it is inhibited by low morale of the employees like, because these two types
of organizations are not able to utilize the skill, the competencies of the employees for
like integrating them into the main system of the organization and somewhere they remain
so weak link with the main system of the organization. So, these along with different perspective,
so diversity in cultural identities with diversity in perspective of like how you view, what
is the importance of that you give to this diversity will lead to different group outcomes
leading to different types of workgroup functioning, whether you give very high importance to these
cultural diversities or you give moderate to low importance on your cultural identities,
and what you do with that perspective like whether you want to integrate them into your
main system or you are trying to utilize them for some other purpose leads to different
types of workgroup function. So, the details about you can just refer to this paper which
talks of the details of this cultural identities, diversity and workgroup functioning. Now, when we are talking of organizational
role what happens when this people enter into the organization they enter and they are a
position or post and what is the role? Role is the expectation set by others from you
and also you as a part of the things that you have do in the organization. So, the way
you join an organization what you do is you join a specific role, and this role is a particular
functioning of the overall system of task that is assigned or given to the employee
by the organization, and what are the expectations from you as a part of that role that you taking
as the expectation from that particular position and also your own expectation from it like
what you feel like you can do being in that position. So, it is divided into two parts
like role as taken and role as given. So, what you can see if you can notice over
here is this is a framework like given role is the job description and your authorization
given; this is the interaction the juncture of the role as taken and role as given. Given
is the job description, performance, measurement evaluation, others explicit and expressed
expectations from you. What others expect from that role then job descriptions and performance
measurement and evaluation. Role as taken is how you enact that role, what ideal you
have about what you want to do from that role, and what is your daily task routine that you
have to do as the part of that role that you are taking. As a result juncture of this is
authorization, means what you are given to do and what you take up as is the authorization
and the responsibilities given to you. This whole role as you see role has taken
and role has given functions within system which is called a sentient system. These act
as the task system. This task system consists of the role that belongs to the structure,
procedures and technologies which exist independently of individuals within the organization. So,
the task system is independent of the organization; it is due to the structure, procedures and
technology certain expectations are there from the particular position the role, and
it is not based on the individual who is joining that role; that is the called the task system.
And further this part is like the system of task one consciously assumes is more easily
recognizable part of role since conscious expectations are built-in, performance measurement
occurs and the individuals overtly works the role as taken. So, the extent to which one
is authorized in these tasks emerges the formal space between taken and given. This means
what? The expectations are more or less known to you; it is based on the task structure
that is given and the performance measurement occurs you know like these are called conscious
expectations from and you can get to measure it. But what happens when there is a sentient
system is it is dependent on the social and human processes. This is a very unconscious
expectation in having great emotional significance which is based again on the attitudes, believes,
needs of the people within the organization. This is not within like defined expectations,
but you can sense this expectation from the system, and these are called covert expectations
and may lead to certain role conflict, and while you are trying tensions and motivation.
So, if we just look into this the task system is the daily task routine, job description,
performance measurements, sentience system is your intergroup dynamics, then informal
role sanction, resistance to change in all these factors.
And when there is the task the task as you can see is expecting something from you, but
the sentience system is giving different key to you, formal and informal expectations and
not matching the resources given to you and your feeling what you can do and what you
cannot do your the human beings feedback; if these two things are not matching it gives
rise to certain conflicts which are called role conflicts and role stress within that
individual, and this part the intersection of these two task and the sentience system
gives rise to certain stress factor and conflicting roles. Now the productivity in the role is linked
with how this role has taken and role has given and this task system and sentient system
are well balanced with each other. So, this is if you see that role enactment and role
conflict, how this is getting imbalanced if we role a stick in and role it less the distance,
the less the distance between role as taken role as given task system and sentient system
the more is the productivity, because people can manage their roles well. When you are coming to status this is another
important thing when people are interacting in the social dynamics whether everybody is
in the same platform or there is a somewhere if like somebody is higher in power structure
and somebody is lower in power structure, and this is due to this is called the social
rank and which we call by status, and status is the mark of the honor among to recognition
esteem and acceptance given to the other person, it depends on this. See supposes this is the
person and this person is giving accuse like everybody is trying to look up into this person
for certain help, then obviously, this person enjoys the higher social status than this
people based on his expertise to meet the needs of these are the people. So, this thing
this status is very important. And how do he come to know about status is
through like through what employees feel important like it could be very minor things like the
presence of wastebasket, in the presence of book cases, good pictures in your wall, like
whether you are sharing a corner of this, whether there are windows in your room, whether
you have a driver for your car; all these small, small things tells you about the status
given to you in the organization. Like whether you have certain facilities like
computers and whether what is the dress that you wear, and what is the title job title
that you having in your organization, and what all memberships you are sharing in the
organization like you are member of so many position; all these signify status that you
have in the organization, and whether you have a secretary or not these are important
factors. Sources of status could be like education
and the job level are two important sources of status; others could be like your ability,
job skill and type of work are also sources of status; other things are your seniority,
then the amount of pay that you get and your age and the stock options that you are having.
Something some factors which tells you like okay this is what you want for your recognized
and that is why you are getting certain better things from the organizations.
So, with this we come to the end of lecture three and what we have covered over here is
organization as the social system, what is the social system, why there is a workforce
diversity, and how that diversity can be utilized by the employees for their own growth and
also buy the organization for its purposes, its excellence and effectiveness in utilizing
the good part, learning from them for the different cultures and trying to utilize those
things, those competences in their main functioning, or they are just utilized because they are
provided as a means to certain ends and whether the workforce diversity is maintained just
to appear like just organization or not, and how these affects the functioning.
Obviously, the organization which can utilize this workforce diversity is utilize the competency
of the workforce diversity and align it with the main purposes of the organization will
be a better performer, because they are getting a huge spectrum of competences fro the human
resources, and also they have to keep into mind the physiological contract, the expectations
of these different individuals coming from different cultural diversity and try to align
with their expectation. So, it is maintaining a workforce diversity is a great challenge
as per the organization is concerned maintaining a cultural diversity and utilizing it, developing
it and making it grow, and also the organization grow together.
It is a great challenge for the people the management how to keep a balance, so that
there is a work life balance, better physiological contract and social equilibrium is there,
and also what to expect from the roles, how to set realistic role expectation both for
the employees and from the employees perspective, how to give status, what status to be given.
These are some good feeling factors that will be given and how this is utilized for the
main functioning of the organization. Thank you.

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