Race & Ethnicity: Crash Course Sociology #34

Race & Ethnicity: Crash Course Sociology #34

How do you define race? If you had to describe why you think you’re a member
of one race and someone else was a member of a
different one, you’d probably focus on appearances – your skin, your hair, maybe even the
structures of your bodies and faces. But most of the time, those physical criteria
mean different things, depending on the culture
you’re a part of. An obvious example is skin color. We use the words White and Black to describe
two races, but the distinction in skin color
between those races isn’t as clear cut. A White person who’s spent the summer at
the beach might come home with brown skin,
but getting a tan doesn’t change their race. And light-skinned Black people may have skin
that’s not all that darker than that tan. Clearly, race is about more than just the
literal color of someone’s skin. So let’s talk about race, and why it’s
a topic that goes more than skin deep. [Theme Music] Much like gender, race is a socially constructed
category. In this case, it’s used to categorize people
who share biological traits that a society
thinks are important. So, you might be wondering: how can race be both
a social construct and something based on biology? Well, the key part of that definition of race
is the last part: what a society thinks is important. Sure, skin color varies widely across regions
of the world. But so does eye color, and we don’t consider people with
blue eyes a different race than people with brown eyes. And while physical traits are often used to describe or
identify a race, they’re not always applied consistently. Take for example, the so-called ‘one-drop’
rule in the United States, where even the smallest amount of
African American ancestry is enough to classify
someone as Black rather than White. The opposite, however, isn’t true – someone
with one Black parent and one White parent
is almost never considered white. Plus people from different places or different
time periods have defined racial groups differently. Nowadays, light skinned people of European descent
are typically considered `White’ in the United States. It doesn’t matter whether your heritage
is British or Irish or Italian or Polish or
German – you’re just ‘White.’ But that wasn’t the case a century ago. In the early 1900s, anyone who wasn’t a White
Anglo-Saxon Protestant was considered ‘ethnic’ – so for example, if you were Italian or Irish,
you weren’t considered white. Likewise, today, being Jewish is often seen
as an ethnicity in the United States. But Europeans are more likely to think of
being Jewish as a race. So, that raises the question: What’s the
difference between ethnicity and race? Well, ethnicities are socially constructed categories
based on cultural traits that a society finds important,
rather than strictly biological traits. Essentially, an ethnic group is a group that
has a shared cultural heritage. Language, traditions, religion – these are
all types of culture that can determine your
ethnic background. Two people of different races might share an ethnicity
– and conversely, two people of the same race might
be of totally different ethnicities. Japanese and Vietnamese people are both considered
Asian, but they come from different cultural backgrounds. In fact, a term that many people think refers
to race – `Hispanic’ – actually refers to ethnicity. To explore this a little more, let’s go to the
Thought Bubble to talk about the differences between
the terms Hispanic, Latino, and Latin American. The term “Hispanic” first appeared as
a racial category in the US Census in 1970, as a way of describing those whose heritage
originated in a Spanish-speaking country. Before then, the Census referred to those
people as Spanish-Americans – even though tracing back their origins to Spain would
mean going way, way back for many of them. And for others, it’d be totally inaccurate. But in day-to-day conversation, most people
from Spanish-speaking backgrounds were usually
referred to by the country of their heritage, like Mexican American or Cuban American, or
sometimes more broadly as ‘Latin American.’ This last term is also where we get the word
`Latino’ – and the de-gendered latinx. It’s a shorter version of the Spanish word
‘latinoamericano,’ and it refers to someone whose heritage
originates from nations in the Americas
that are south of the United States, including Mexico, all of South America,
and the Caribbean. Now, not all Hispanics are Latino. Being from Spain for example, makes you Hispanic
but not Latino – and not all Latinos are Hispanic. Brazilians speak Portuguese, meaning that
they are not considered Hispanic. But regardless of which term you’re using,
Hispanic or Latino, neither of these distinctions
are based on physical appearance. Unlike race, which is based on observable,
physical traits, ethnicities aren’t. And in fact, two people of the same ethnicity
can be entirely different races. For example, both Cameron Diaz and Rosario
Dawson are Cuban Americans, which means they
are both Hispanic, but Cameron Diaz is white
and Rosario Dawson is Black. Thanks Thought Bubble! Though race is more commonly used by society
as a way to organize people and distribute power, both race and ethnicity play a role in how people
are perceived and, therefore, the opportunities that
are available to them. A person’s race influences a whole host of social
outcomes, from their education to their income to
their experiences with the criminal justice system. But which races or ethnicities are advantaged
or disadvantaged depends on when and where
we’re talking about. For example, in the United Kingdom, there’s
been a lot of unrest about immigration from
Eastern Europe, especially Poland. Incidents of hostility and violence against
Polish immigrants have increased in the wake
of the UK’s exit from the European Union. But while Eastern Europeans are
considered an ethnic minority in the UK, people in the US are much more likely to think
of Eastern European immigrants as just White –
they’re not thought of as a minority. And that’s because what constitutes a minority
is more complex than you might think. Sociologists define a minority as any category of people,
who are distinguished by physical or cultural difference,
that a society sets apart and subordinates. Now, notice that there are two important parts
of that definition: First, minorities share a distinctive identity
based on physical or cultural traits. Second, minorities occupy a lower status in
society and have less access to the levers
of societal power. Notice how that definition doesn’t say anything
about the size of the group. In sociology, a minority group’s relative
size isn’t important. For example, women are considered a minority, even
though they make up about 51% of the United States. And a group that’s a minority in terms of
size can still be a majority in terms of power. South African apartheid is an example of this. From 1948 to 1994, a white minority maintained
a system of racial segregation and discrimination
against Black South Africans. Right now, non-Hispanic Whites are the majority
group in the United States in terms of sheer size,
making up 61% of the US population. But that’s rapidly changing. As of 2015, babies of color being born now
outnumber non-Hispanic white babies. And five states are already minority-majority states:
California, Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, and Hawaii. How can a state or country be minority-majority?
Isn’t that, like, an oxymoron? Well, for one thing, even if non-Hispanic
white Americans no longer make up more than
half the country, they’ll likely remain a larger group than any
other single race. But also, to be a minority in the sociological
sense of the word, a group must be in a position
of disadvantage. And as we’ve discussed many times before,
non-Hispanic White Americans tend to have
higher incomes, live in better neighborhoods, and are more likely
to have more prestigious jobs and better educations
than racial and ethnic minorities. But before we can make comparisons between
different racial groups in the US, we should talk
about the races that make up the United States. The US Census uses six different
categories of race when collecting data about
the demographics of the country. White refers to anyone who reports their origins as
being from Europe, the Middle East, or Northern Africa. So, Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Iranian,
Moroccan – they’re all ethnicities that go
under the heading of white. Yes, you heard me right. People of Middle Eastern descent are categorized
as White by the Census, even if they often aren’t
treated as if they’re white. Why? Well, what’s now become known as ‘White’
originates from a term to refer to people of
Indo-European descent: the ‘Caucasian’ race. The term Caucasian started as a reference to the
Caucus Mountains, which run through the modern day
countries of Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Back when race was understood as a purely biological
phenomenon, everyone from Europe all the way down
to India was lumped into one ‘Caucasian’ group. So yesterday’s ‘Caucasian’ contained most
of the people who count as today’s ‘white’, but also captured groups that nowadays get
labelled as Asian, such as Indians or Pakistanis. Now, many Hispanic Americans are also counted
as White in the Census. ‘Hispanic’ is considered an ethnicity, not a race,
for Census purposes, so in the 2010 Census, 52% of Hispanic Americans identified
themselves as white, while 36.7% identified themselves as ‘some
other race,’ and smaller percentages identified
themselves as one of the other racial groups. Black or African Americans are the second largest
racial group in the United States and are defined
as individuals with African heritage, including
those who are Afro-Caribbean. Since many African Americans’ ancestors were
forcibly brought to the United States as slaves, the countries that their ancestors
originated from are often unknown. To this day, the remnants of slavery and the Southern
plantation systems can be seen in the geographic
distribution of Black Americans around the country. Though many Black Americans moved to
Northern cities during the Great Migration
of the early 20th century, most remained in the South, in a region that has come
to be known as the Black Belt of the United States. The third racial category used in the Census
is ‘American Indian or Alaska Native,’ which refers to anyone whose origins are indigenous
to the contiguous United States and Alaska. Though Native Americans numbered in the millions
when Europeans first arrived in the 15th century, today, they control only 2% of the country’s
land area, make up just 0.2% of the US population, and remain severely disadvantaged in terms
of access to education and income. The fourth Census category for race, Asian,
refers to origins in Eastern Asia, Southeast Asia,
or the Indian subcontinent, including China, India,
Japan, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. The largest subgroup of Asian Americans are
those of Chinese ancestry, who make up a little less
than ¼ of the total Asian American population. The fifth Census category is Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander, which refers to people whose origins are from
Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. As I mentioned before, Hawaii is one of the states
where a minority race is the majority race for the state – and in fact, it’s the only state that has
always been minority-majority. The last Census category is just a catch-all
‘Some Other Race.’ You might remember that about a third of
Hispanic Americans fall into this group; if a person lists a country of origin that doesn’t fit
one of the other categories, they get stuck in this group. You might be thinking that these categories
don’t seem like the racial groups you typically think of. And that’s ok! In all likelihood, the way that the government
defines races will continue to change, to incorporate our society’s changing notions
of race and ethnicity. And something that should be clear from everything
we talked about today is that races aren’t fixed
immutable categories – they are defined by societies. Today we learned the difference between races
and ethnicities. We discussed how definitions of races and
ethnicities have changed over time and across places. We also discussed the terms minority and minority-majority. And we finished up by discussing how races
are defined in the United States. Crash Course Sociology is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C.
Kinney Studio in Missoula, MT, and it’s
made with the help of all of these nice people. Our animation team is Thought Cafe and Crash
Course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud. If you’d like to keep Crash Course free for everyone, forever, you can support the series at Patreon, a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued support.

100 thoughts on “Race & Ethnicity: Crash Course Sociology #34

  1. One of disease of society is categorizing people based on majority or minority..this is nonsense. God creates us equally and diverse so we can know and learn each other. The noble of us is not based on external appearance but what is reside on our heart…

  2. I thought Latino included French , Italian, Romanian, Spanish and Portuguese.

    Also why doesn’t ‘native american’ include the indigenous populations of The rest of America? Are they not the same race?

  3. People here in the comments getting salty because she said there is nothing that makes y'alls races superior to others.That its simply socially constructed

  4. So if I’m correct here race is defined by society but also by the location of where you and your ancestors are from? Bit confused on that last part there.

  5. I hate when social scientists twist the language. The word "minority" refers to a group that is less numerous that the majority. It doesn't necessarily have anything to do with being disadvantaged. It would be perfectly correct to say, for instance, that Sweedish Americans are a minority in the United States, or that South Africa was ruled by a white minority under Apartheid. I also hate how she used the term "people of color" to refer to anyone who isn't white. The term used to mean black people. And "hispanic" or "latino" were interchangeable names for anyone who came, or whose ancestors came, from south of the Rio Grande to Tierra del Fuego.

  6. I think the us is wrong with race if you compair a slavic to a germanic person you can see a lot of different facial features

  7. Minority and majority groups have been subordinated. South Africa blacks were the majority.
    The terms have to do with polulation.. You're giving negative connotations based on your delusions and lack of knowledge and creating division and hurting people. But im sure you "making a difference is more important." Even if it's for the worst. Put you sanctimonious narcissistic destruction above everything else. Who cares who gets hurt.Race isnt a problem it's the people who feel elevated by, who get off on abusing others. The come in all colors and genders and they always play victim yet are the victimizers.
    Narcassists and psychopaths love a good smokescreen.

  8. Question: How would you describe my race and ethnicity?
    Background: I was born and raised in Ohio, USA. I've never lived anywhere else, and my culture, values, language, etc have been shaped by my life in rural Ohio. Both my parents were born in and later emigrated from India. I am a brown guy, black hair, etc., but I know almost nothing of India, it's history, culture, etc.
    I'm asking because I recently moved to a new town, and everyone is always asking me where I'm from or what my ethnicity is. No one is ever satisfied when I say I'm from Ohio or my ethnicity is American, and they keep asking questions until I've said something about India. I've always thought what they're meaning to ask about is my race and not ethnicity, right? Is it wrong for me to say my ethnicity is American? I don't want to say my ethnicity is Indian because I have very little to do with that country and culture other than the fact that I look like most people from there. What are your thoughts?

  9. Well, I will give her an A + to even try attempting to explain such a hot topic subject as race and ethnicity. I think she is being sincere in her findings. I do not think that race and ethnicity aren't important enough issues to fight over. I think when a particular race or ethnicity has done unspeakable atrocities to people from different races or ethnicities then they need to be accountable. The Turkish and Armenian genocide is one such atrocities that the Turkish government has still denied it happened, even to this day. The, we are all people and all people have done atrocities don't sit well with me. This is where this, we are all one race "the human race" is gearing us up to embrace a one world government. Why can't people just be proud and love where they come from, embrace our differences, not run from them?

  10. RACE is a sensitive topic. But here's the pushback. If you want to here LIES. THEN this channel isn't for you. PERIOD. Some things are just common sense. Can't be BENT or BROKEN. 2.3k dislikes love those lies. And counting….

  11. Race is NOT based off biology.
    You lost your credibility there.
    White people have the genes for black skin it has been switched off therefore, Europeans appear white.
    Physical traits are a response to Environmental pressures that lead to mutations!
    Race is NOT biology!!!!!

  12. Spain is literally a neighbour of France, Portugal and Britian. If you go to Spain you will see they are just as white as any Brit and they can have blonde and blue eyes.

  13. There's one race
    Acts 17
    25 Neither is worshipped with men's hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things;

    26 And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;

  14. So does that mean I, a white european french dude can be japanese without being called a weaboo If move there? If you say no, you have a disgusting double standard.

  15. Good info except for the continued attempt to bring the ridiculous idea that gender is more than boy and girl and is a social construct

  16. Talk too fast for me to watch only a short bit of the video. West makes it worst is your clips being cut so frequently adds to the perceived speed. It's a lot annoying. But the info is excellent. Not bad comments on the info. Keep it up, just go slower please 😣


    i don’t understand how people make it so hard

  18. Actually, professor, the race concept was created by wealthy Europeans in the 1700's in order to foment division and maintain power, which is where the term divide and conquer comes from. There is only one race, the human race and all you are doing is perpetuating the notion of White Supremacy, in other words, you are historically wrong, bot to mention the fact that ethnicity also means attitudes on which racism is based Not everybody see people as a race but as humans. No wonder you are from Monrana where probably leas of the human population is what you call colored.

  19. Corrections,: not to mention that ethnicity has also to do with attitudes, not all people of the sme skin tone have same attitudes. Lady from Montana who probably has
    never left the state. Also, Rosario Dawson's ancestry is not Cuban is Puerto Rican. Need to do better resrarch.

  20. In fact a long time ago Asians were considered White now their called Yellow or Asian which I don't understand the Yellow part since their not Yellow skinned.

  21. Many Mexican's, and Central Americans who make up majority of the migration into the United States are predominantly Indigenous American, many who still use an Indigenous language as their first language, also the Spanish incorporates a lot of Indigenous words which can be difficult for European Spanish speakers to understand half of the time. Also many Native Americans is the U.S. Have countless of times been mistaken as, or even harassed by immigration for being mistaken as a Mexican, or central American migrants.

  22. 0:96 – 1:04 race is genetic not merely social or quasi – genetic. even amongst the white race, and for that reason amongst the white race, that genetic diference is referred to as ethnicity.

  23. 1:13 – 1:16 that is a quasi intelligent point. not absolutely wrong, but very preferential and also still from a personal bias. society is a very minor factor of evolution. and so has minor epigenetical consequences especially over the long run and long term.

    military is a more major factor of evolution. academic centers of knowledge.

  24. 2:21 in white irish caucasian there are ethnic group that descended from their royal lineages at the least. so they are conserving themselves and their order as a white race too. for that reason the most cognizant ones of them realize and know that if they are all 1 race, which they are, then their differences are minor ethnicities.

    that is a conservation of order and a conservation of race, and a conservation of wealth, and a conservation of economics , and a conservation of universal resources.

  25. 2:35 – 2:42 and that is yet another reason why culture kills and hastens sorrows at times.

    depression and hypo depression results at times.

    think about all of your acquaintances and friends and family and families that you have already left behind.

    those communities will suffer and die faster yet the corporations will and always will continue to prosper. As well as the Academic Communities, And the …

    choose your own adventure.

  26. 2:51 japanese is apart of the grey race , which is apart of the brown race.

    caucus people who are grey know that they are damaged and injured already .

  27. brown race people who eat to be white skin, including the chinese , the asians, the japanese, the vietnamese, the taiwanese, the hong kongonese, and the koreans are stressing themselves out to be considered as Caucasians or White.
    catholics Catholics Michael Warren
    india is another prime example of that too.

    and then there is Arabia, yet again to assist in picking up the pieces of these forms of humanity

  28. 2:50 – 2:59 Hispanic is used as in terms of an ethnicities, but those are really clines too. familial clines at the least. Hispanic is a royal community of Isabella , Iberia , elizabeth, Ilisabeth, Ilizabeth.

    and thus scandinavia, and germany, and hygge and denmark and china,

    and hong kong which is a city of the british

  29. 3:02 hispanic and latino and , …, are actually not the same things. latin is of italy.

    Hispanic are the royal bredrin of the Scandinavians and the royal families that regressed. Including Isabella.

    Hispanic lost due to poor building, poor planning, and even at times over-partying. so some excesses at times, and some lack of knowledge,

    latin America is merely the warm parts of America those are dark white skin people or individuals ta i nos

  30. 4:04 so spain is hispanic. arawak defeated portugal on some level and that was even during the AfricA.

    Brasil is Hispanic yest again, and the White Caucasian built in a more superior way there as compared to Mexico,

  31. 4:09 : 1 point for race as an observable physical trait, which is phenotype. but,

    rather , a fenotype, a component of phenotype.

  32. 4:11 now you are down to a 70% . ethnicities are still observable differences of a race so it is, and they are minor , or are more minor fenotypes. subtle differences that a lot of observers overlook.

    phi is ph in that usage from greece. a spelling from greece to trick literates.


    ethnicities are the interplay between fenotypes and genotypes. so a fenotype is the independent variable and the gene is the independent variable. but that gene encodes for that fenotype.

    so there is a level of dependency or interaction between the fenotype and genotype, and also over time or even in opposing vectors, genotype to fenotype .

  33. 4:11 the way that i do this part is that no race is equivalent to any other race.

    according to colors of all beasts the three races are 1. white 2. grey 3. black

    since there are other factors for humans or animals and beasts, white and black does not mix exactly like paint for fenotype of animals. so instead, the grey race is really brown, and that might be more a limitation of our vision.

  34. 4:18 Cameron Diaz is Caucasian

    Rosario Dawson is spanish.

    Spanish includes whatever you are as long as you are speaking spanish.

    Rosario Dawson is actually Indian of India.

  35. <4:33 and trailing. that is a great political and economic point. but is very obvious even just from watching the news especially any where in the United States of America. that is often a mute pooint for professionals.

  36. 5:14 5 points for that slide. minority is just less ta 50% of what ever it is so 1 of 2 is 1 v 1. No minority in that situation. 1 versus 1, for instance.

    but 1/3 is 1 versus 2, that 1 is a minority. and those 1 & 1 are the majority.

    but since there are much larger populations and communities than 3 ( 1 1 1) or ( i i i ) or (I I I)

    that can be percentergerized as 49.999% versus 50.001%, which makes 50.001% the majority.

    but, we still uze a quorom. quoram.

  37. 5:41 if you want to academically and practically be an expert on race then do not get stuck on gender differences. gender diferences are important and sex diferences are important. do not get stuck on sex differences too, either.

  38. 7:09 – 7:30 indo-european is still brown. once that indian is in , there is no way out, because they felt tricked an betrayed in their own kingdom.

  39. 7:49 – 7:52 Hispanic is apart of the brown race. hispanic or of spain, was excluded because of their insistent attacks on Ireland, and at one point they got as far as the Netherlands. and that is when the hispanics turned on themselves and formalized as germany due to the leaderiship of the Netherlands.

    this was after the Netherlands has already led the criminals to Australia and found Australia for them.

  40. So North Africans are white and black people are those with African heritage and they don't know the country in which their ancestors originated from. So technically African people need their own category because we know the countries we come from. So would I be considered mixed since I'm north African and west African?

  41. Ethnicity is more the social behaviors shared by a specific group more so than anything dealing with genetics or race. When people live in a certain area, they will develop certain physical traits that make them better suited for that area. They also develop certain diets based on available foods and how those foods are obtained. When there are methods created to obtain foods, those methods will have certain spiritual or cultural dimensions attached to them. These are passed from generation to generation in the form of what it termed…..Culture. When Culture is coupled with the physical similarities shared by a certain group, the combined two are called ethnicity.

  42. Arabs are not white . Some countries have a handful . My roots go back to africa . This is propagandist attempts to try and make the census look less american .You will get you wish bimbo . Once love is gone it can never come back .

  43. She somewhat has it wrong. With in ethnic groups there is an idea of races which means to split the people with in that ethnic group apart therefore creating a hierarchy and one race gets to be on top and in control. But in a global sense the idea of races is quite simple, it’s black or white meaning that; if you are of a darker color opposite other then white, then you are a second class human since white people have dominance over the mass media and most part of the world that matter. So, in reality there is only one race and that is the human race but as humans we separate ourselves. The term minority in America was presented to Congress and law makers of the United States for black African Americans because after the slavery event black African Americans were considered a protected class of people who we’re supposed to be given some sort of reparations just as the native Americans got reparations. However, once the term minority was put in to place and public every other ethnic group who had nothing to do with slavery and force labor suddenly squeezed under the umbrella of the term minority. White women, Latinos, gay and lesbian and every other groups who were not Caucasian adopted the word minority. As a result the money that was supposed to be distributed to black African Americans got distributed mostly the Caucasian women and their movement and every other ethnic group that adopted the word minority got a small amount of funds for their group. Black African Americans only received less than a fraction of those government funds. Sad thing is, nobody in leadership for the NAACP and THE BLACK CAUCUS did nothing about it. As a result, every other ethnic group that is not Caucasian wants to unify with Black African Americans when their ethnic group is treated unfairly. So, this chick in the video needs to do her research before introducing a topic that she is not well informed in or she need to critically think about the information she’s getting when she decides to post it on a social media channel. 👎🏾

  44. If i dump you in China are you now Chinese ? ? ? It's not rocket science Race exists . The FBI can detect your race with a single hair

  45. Gender is NOT socially constructed I can’t watch the video anymore cause you don’t know what you are talking about

  46. Thank you for explaining the hispanic Latino dilemma. It’s such a headache taking the SAT and not having a race because there’s only hispanic and it’s an ethnicity. Then there’s the people who call you hispanic if you look latín? But Latin isn’t a race and you’re not hispanic if you don’t speak Spanish …

  47. I think it would be important to bring up Linnaeus who invented race. To anyone is interested, check out Carolus Linnaeus

  48. Race is a biological reality. That's all. It is immutable and most people agree on that.

    Culture and ethnicity are social constructs.

  49. I think the best way to describe race is by phenotype and ethnicity is based on genotype. A west african and someone from Papua New Guinea might have similar phenotypes and hence are both considered black. But genetically and ethinically they are as different as French person is to someone who is Chinese.

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