Rise and Fall of Indus Valley Civilization

Rise and Fall of Indus Valley Civilization

This video is in collaboration with 11
other history channels find the playlist in the pinned comment below or in the
description check out Epimetheus with his video on Bronze Age China and check
out knowledgia on his video on the Hittites of Anatolia the Indus Valley
Civilisation spanned the region around the Indus Valley and included regions
that are known today as western India and Pakistan factors like trade farming
suggested peaceful coexistence and common practices played a vital part in
its development and sustainability the civilisations growth took place around
3000 BC and therefore constitutes some of the earliest discovered and
documented civilisations perhaps the significant rise can be attributed to
its location that being along a calm reliable water supply rivers proved
extremely useful for ancient civilisations they provided a great
source of fresh water and an area to hunt and gather food when they flooded
they left behind nutrient-rich silt and this fertile soil was great for
agriculture in the case of the Nile in Indus River annual flooding allowed for
the growing of crops in mass quantities enough to feed a growing population
rivers were also a natural fast transport system both for the
transportation of goods and migrations of people the Indus Valley Civilisation
had begun as simple farming villages and later developed into advanced urban
centres with well-developed City structures these developments aided to
the rise in population as well as the adoption of economic activities such as
trade which further aided to the growth of these cities by 2600 BC the Indus
Valley Civilisation was flourishing everything we know about the Indus
Valley Civilisation comes from archaeology it remains the largest
ancient civilisation discovered with over 1500 sites a likely writing system
has been identified though it remains an unsolved mystery as historians and
people who study linguistics have yet to decipher how to read it through
archaeological artefacts we can paint a picture of what life might have been
like the Indus Valley Civilisation revolved around two prime cities Harappa
and Mohenjo-Daro large-scale excavations were carried out at the site
Mohenjo-Daro under the direction of John Marshall and Ernest Mackay and numerous
other directors in the 1930s these cities like most in the Indus Valley
Civilisation portrayed a clear indication of prior urban planning with
straight roads elaborate drainage systems and strong durable buildings
houses in these cities were made of brick either baked mud or wood bricks
these were made by skilled craftsmen who produced every brick the same size
there was an advanced water supply and sanitation system which provided a clean
environment for the community and with obvious hygiene benefits dwellings in
these cities had private toilets that connected to wider public drains these
used gravity to transport waste and they were covered by ornately laid bricks the
sewer network emptied into the surrounding water courses and cesspits
that were regularly emptied and cleaned both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were
fortified by large robust walls supposedly for the protection from
either invaders or wild animals however due to the close proximity of rivers it
is more likely that these walls were designed for flood control
Mohenjo-Daro had two districts the citadel evidently for the upper class
and the lower town for the ordinary citizens although evidence suggests
there was relative equality amongst citizens
as all of the streets were well-drained the city remained dry and clean thereby
reducing the potential of disease one of the most opulent features of the Indus
Valley Civilisation can be found at Mohenjo-Daro historians and
archaeologists named it the Great Bath there is no true consensus between
historians on the purpose of this great bath but some historians have speculated
it was used for religious practices perhaps as a spiritual cleansing effect
for those that bathed in it the spiritual beliefs of the Indus Valley
Civilisation remain inconclusive however it is believed that they honoured nature
especially water which has similarities with the present-day Hindu beliefs the
population of these cities reached around 30,000 to 60,000 individuals and
during the civilisations peak the population subcontinent grew to between
four to six million people this large population was sustained by the Indus
River Basin and subsequent biannual flooding the inhabitants of Dholavira
created a minimum of 16 reservoirs and developed a collection system based on
harvesting rainwater this environment was perfect for farming crops like wheat
and barley providing a surplus of food that was stored in granaries the rivers
and watercourses would also have provided fish in other types of
crustaceans they farmed many herding animals such as Bulls cattle
short-horned buffaloes and elephants one of the most interesting aspects of the
Indus Valley Civilisation is how they traded artefacts have been uncovered of
seals that were made from clay or ceramics
although these seals contained writings that remain undecipherable they depicted
images of animals which may have been used as an identification mark one of
the most famous seals is known as the Pashupati seal it depicts a man with a
horned headdress surrounded by a buffalo and a tiger
along with elephants and deer’s often debated by archaeologists and historians
it may suggest the representation of the deity some surmise that this seal is one
of the earliest depictions of the Hindu god Shiva who was associated with yoga
and regarded as a lord of animals evidence has been found that the Indus
Valley Civilisation were trading beyond their region as numerous seals have been
found in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 BC traders carried a seal which was used as
proof of their trade they utilised a standardised measure for weights made
from limestone there was no metallic money instead a barter system was used
one of the recorded trading partners of the Sumerian States was the Indus Valley
Civilisation who they called Meluḫḫa it is not known whether this was their
title or a name attributed to them by the Sumerians cotton was one of the most
important products for trade but other items for example jewellery and animals
were also exported evidence exists of the bead and bangle factory at the site of Chanhudaro whereas the site of Lothal is speculated to be a Dockyard
providing ships to transport goods via sea routes we know the Indus Valley
Civilisation were accomplished builders traders and farmers we can also
interpret other findings discovered and decode how they lived their daily lives
just like archaeologists in the future who will potentially uncover iPads and
smartphones and surmise how we live today findings discovered by
archaeologists have unearthed many toys and educational artefacts Terracotta
toys found that most in descent spread a glimpse of the pastimes that might have
involved trained animals terracotta ox carts with movable parts are perhaps the
most common through the discovery of the bronze statuette the poorly named
dancing girl we can also see an aspect to their culture another interesting
sculpture found at Mohenjo-Daro is the so called priest-king the sculptures
made out of soapstone a type of metamorphic rock showing a neatly
bearded man with pierced ear lobes there is a Fillet around his head possibly all
that is left of a once elaborate hairstyle or headdress his hair is
combed back he wears an arm band and a uniquely
designed cloak there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled Mohenjo-Daro
and we still do not know who the statue represented a priest or a king or just a
prestigious person what caused the downfall of this great civilisation is
still debated clearly no defined answer currently exist but there are many
theories most research has concur that due to the gradual decline the demise
was either due to the climate of the region changing or that the river
changed course as a result of tectonic variation this dramatic weather changed
to a dry cold climate would have decreased food production and
productivity over this extended period of decline many of the population would
have migrated to find more sustainable land for farming and survival weapons
have not been found nor artwork depicting warfare therefore this leads
to the conclusion that they were a peaceful civilisation there was no
evidence that any city was ever burned or besieged by an army or taken over by
force from within what we do know is during this period of decline many
features such as writing the use of standardised measurements and trade
began to disappear many of their great urban settlements were gradually
abandoned at around 1500 BC the Indus Valley Civilisation finally came to an
end and as a result the city slowly became ruins it was not until the 20th
century when archaeological digs were conducted that this fascinating
civilization was uncovered without written sources or documents available
this civilisation will remain largely a mystery we can speculate and create an
idea of their culture and society piecing together their way of life it is
hoped that one day the mysteries and secrets of this fascinating civilisation
will reveal themselves but for now we can only piece together parts of the
puzzle and speculate how and why this great civilisation rose and vanished
thank you everyone for watching a special thanks to our patrons Shara
Ogilvie and Jimmy Alexander for supporting the creation of this video if
you haven’t already remember to check out Epimethius knowledgia and all
the other creators in this collaboration find the playlist in the description and
the pinned comment below thanks again for watching

100 thoughts on “Rise and Fall of Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Here is the Playlist thanks for watching!
    Some Corrections –
    As some have pointed out at 5:41 its looks more like a Rhino
    The biggest site is a city known as rakhigiri
    At 4:18, the image is of a carving of an archaeological find in Denmark called the Gundestrup cauldron.

  2. My only complaint is that I wish this video had been longer, because it was so we'll put together and I definitely enjoyed this! Looking forward to the next one!

  3. I always find it funny how much is attributed to religious practices with ancient cultures. The given historical narrative would have us believe all the ancients did all day was pray and prepare for death.

  4. Great video, but uhm, I notice that you use a Ross Bugden piece at the end of your video. You should probably credit him in your description, as it's something he would prefer you do if you use his music.

  5. From the dancing girl statue and king bust, it is possible to hypothesize the Indus Valley civilization is a black civilization that was destroyed by Aryan colonizer. The survivors of the civilization could be the founder of Wakanda.

  6. 3:20 Wait, so you’re telling me, ANCIENT India had more toilets than MODERN India. Well, most of the Indus River civilisation is in Pakistan, so that explains that.

  7. At about 4:19 You show an image (possibly depicting Cernunnos) from the interior of the Gundestrup cauldron, found in Denmark; What has that to do with Indus Valley civilisation? I'm not trying to attack or troll, just asking in case I'm missing something;

  8. I discovered the existence of the Harappan civilisation on a trip to Chandigarh, India a few years ago. I was quietly amazed as I'd never heard of it before. Most interesting was the fact that Chandigarh was built over the top of one of these cities. If anyone knows it, it is a grid city built as a new capital for the Indian state of Punjab. The French architect, Le Corbusier designed many of the centrepieces of the city. But the outstanding fact is its grid geometry which , on building, was discovered to overlay a previous Harippan city of similar grid geometry. There are many wonderful artifacts at the Chandigarh city Museum of this former civilisation.

  9. The British directors are given credit for discovery of the Indus Valley Civilisation, but it was due to the efforts of excellent Indian archaeologists like Rakhaldas Bandopadhyay and Daya Ram Sahni, these sites were discovered. Bandopadhyay was the young and talented principal investigator at the site of Mohenjo Daro. It was due to his efforts the similarities between Harappa and Mohenjo daro were discovered and the idea of the Indus Valley Civilisation was established. But he never received proper credit for his work. He was heavily discriminated against. His British supervisor John Marshall hogged all the credit from the International communities. Marshall was certainly a good archaeologist and director of the Archaeological Survey of India at that time but certainly not the principal investigator of the project. He was not allowed to publish his work and thoughts. Marshall wrote his book and told the world about this amazing civilisation and got all the attention. In his book he did thank Bandopadhyay but it was certainly not the proper recognition that Bandopadhyay deserved. Do check out his Wikipedia page and other resources online and spread the message about this great archaeologist.

  10. Back when I lived in West Virginia, my teacher Mr. Heidenreich has suggested that the original Indus Valley civilization is genetically identical to the traditional population of Germany. It is possible they spoke an early dialect of German. The reason why European languages have similarities are because they conquered the world and created world civilization. Maybe the civilization disappeared because everyone picked up and went to Germany?

  11. Do you know if they had the same brick size as the Sumerians? Apparently the Egyptians did, which is used as evidence that the Sumerians kick-started Pharaonic civilisation.

  12. Why were bits of the Arabian peninsula highlighted yellow along with the Indus River valley civilization?

  13. Well, there ARE evidence that IVC demised or rather shifted Eastwards due to Nuclear war against the Atlantists. The IVC completely annihilated the Atlantiants, whilst they survived n shifted East wards to the Ganga-Brahmaputra valley. Most of the skeletons both human n animals shows radioactive..

  14. The one error in an otherwise very good presentation is the assertion that future archeologists would consider our digital tech devices a treasure trove of information about us, when in fact these devices degrade very, very quickly. They might be able to guess their function, but the data within will not be accessible at all within a handful of generations, just another element of plastic crap in the immense midden heap of useless detritus we are so busy "building."

  15. 🙏Yoga and meditation also there ……..
    This Prove of how old and rich is Indus valley culture civilization .
    Still today India remains land diverse culture, peaceful and complex engineering.

    But pakistan are destroying our peacefulness and make our land into a war zone for Islamision in India.
    Pakistan stop breeding terrorists stop killing innocent people,Stop making our Kashmir boys into suicide bomb .

  16. At 6:16 'there was no metallic money, so a barter system was used' this is not quite accurate, just before this is pointed out that the two peoples had a method for standardizing weights and measures. The first money was in fact the 'Shekel' which was a measure of grain. So although there was no coinage, there was money and the concept of money. Hence trade was not by barter, ie I'll swap 3 goats for 1 cow, but actually I'll buy 3 goats for x amount of grain or its equivalent.

    Note until some kind of modern Rosetta stone is found that translates the Indus Valley text, we don't know what the Indus valley money was.

    There have been no examples of barter system found in the ancient world, and certainly the Indus Valley and the Mesopotamians, would not have been so wealthy, had they used bartering, which is a hopeless system. .

  17. This is the best video on IVC I've seen on YouTube so far.
    Totally away from politics, focused on things we can all agree upon about the IVC. 🙏🙏🙏

  18. Indus Valley Civilization was built by Hindus or Aryans or Brahmins, Other OCs and BCs. PasupatiSiva is not Siva but Brahma. See the three heads and animals around him in the seal suggest that He was their creator God like for Hindus in India now. And also Brahma is sitting in the Yoga pose as as usual. These people roamed and built all River-valley Civilization before finally finding India and south India which they were searching to settle in. We can see a continuous development in their works and also decline because of natural calamities like floods because of which they moved from one place to other after some thousand years or so, From Indus valley it was easy for them to find India after crossing Thar Desert. After coming to India with their Hinduism they successfully cheated our Native Black Indians or SC/STs and they built the same kind of cities, towns, temples, temple tanks, wells, toilets, granaries, mining, cutting trees, all destructive activities in our Villages and never allowed us Natives or Aboriginals to enter their towns because of which Untouchablity was born and Casteism or varna triangle was born in Mesapatomia itself(Sumarians-Brahmins, Assyrians- Kshatriyas, Amalakites- Vysyas, Akadians-BCs after many small wars they came to terms to form this triangular society based on their best skills. Sumarians were best in learning, Assyrians were warriors, Amalakites were formers and business men, and Akadians were made as slaves to do all the works, to make them as slaves these Assyrians killed and beheaded many heads, those are even sculpted in Ancient Babylonia) Even, Bible talks about these people in Samson story, theg built temple that stood on two pillars, even in India theg built such buildings for which they would have destroyed many trees, animal habitats as well our Aboriginal's habitats.😢😭😤 Please, consider my research and think about it.

  19. Can you do a video focused on the collapse of IVC and its relation to the bronze age collapse. Do we have any evidence of changing international relations in this period?

  20. It is funny how most people just cant get out of the "if I dont know what it is it must be religious in nature" mantra.
    Many things people say are "religious in nature" have a clear function in use, and people still say they are "religious in nature".
    It is even a clear "decline" saw from older civilizations to newer civilizations in which things they used for a purpose once were then suddenly "turned into religious worship". What is more probable ? That people used those things for a reason and former archaeologists were wrong, or that clear functional things described as such were suddenly forgotten and used as mystic religious practices ?

  21. Now…before think of war between. China and india..learn this history.
    The western influence is nothing but animosity between brothers. Mixture of Indian and chinese are the true Asian race.

  22. This Indus valley civilization has left no written records that can be deciphere, atleast no extensive written artefacts have been discovered. Anything we say is pure conjecture.

  23. Western historians: We have language and stories (Vedas) without a people (Aryans) and we have artifacts including cities, writing, culture, trade etc. Without a known language. NO THESE TWO CANNOT BE RELATED. TOTALLY DIFFERENT PEOPLE!

  24. if i have a time machine, i would like to visit the indus civilization. i have read a lot about the indus civilization since 1978 but very little is known about this civilization other than speculation.

  25. Firstly well done you have done a decent job, however your maps need to show the now extinct Saraswati river. There were more communities around there.

  26. On the subject of warfare, keep in mind that though no such artifacts of marital endeavor have been uncovered, only a very small portion of those sites have yet been excavated. (We can blame much of this on the increasingly martial endeavors of the region's current inhabitants.) The Mayans, for example, were thought to be a "peaceful society" by its early archaeologists.

  27. Modern indians have nothing to do with the Vedic civilization. Those brown third worlders have to learn to understand that thanks to ancient Aryans (nordics), they know how to write and speak an Indo-European language.

  28. Excellent video. However, the image you show at 4:19 is from the Gundestrup cauldron discovered in Denmark in 1891, and dates from about 150BC. What has this to do with the Indus Valley Civilization? (Other than, perhaps, a reference to the similarities of the "Lord of Beasts" motif?)

  29. i know its just a theory but what if the reason they collapsed was because of the deterioration of the trade routes with the western empires like the hittites etc. those civs were heavily centralized but also heavily reliant on trade as copper and tin were rarely found in the same places.

  30. Why does no archaeologist ever dare to come down south of India valley…down to keealdhi..and adichanallur..sites and reveal to the world….

  31. Hinduism is the way of living. The correct name of this religion is "Sanatana Dharma" means that was practised before the beginning of civilizations , before the humans and everything and it will never end . Its in our "Bhagvat Gita" that sanatan dharma following people will be less in "Kali yuga" (the present time, the evil period ) which was started around 3000 BC. It's means that before 3000 BC the hindus were all over the world but new evil beliefs started coming , BUT it us also mentioned that our lord vishnu will take a incarnation in this world to end the evil period . Soon


  33. If the city is collapsed by river, then can't they rebuild somewhere the same. are they do not know the course of rivers, are they not cleaver enough to manage the change of course ? is that would have happened only one time ? was there no incident before to understand the river course or drift, is that the river could change entire course in on single shot ? then you are under playing the great people !! yes its now lost but why ?????????????

  34. 3000 BCE is the mature phase, there have been sites found in the baloch province in Pakistan & Afghanistan , the Hindu Kush etc. pity that these regions are war ravaged & infested by people who hate any pre-islamic history which is very sad as it forces archeology to make assumptions , recently a plough was unearthen in Northern India which shows that the Indian agricultural phase can be dated to 9000 BCE – this plough is the oldest & shows the use of Iron in India @ a period that other civilizations did not have, what is curious though is the lack of horses & iron equipment in the Indus itself.

  35. In Harappan civilization people buried there dead bodies not burnt and the king or priest shown in this documentary is without moustache only beard looking like Muslims we have to think about that.

  36. Where’s the Abrahamic God in their history??

    Oh- he was busy promising the Jews a small piece of land inhabited by others, while letting pretty much every nearby civilization enslave them for 3,000 years.

  37. The Indus Valley civilisation is a Dravidian civilisation. Now the aryans are fucking up everything.

  38. im from SINDH Moan-Jo-Daro the Oldest culture Indus people lived in peace for thousand of years they were the most intelligent people who ever lived The ancient civilizations seemed to work with nature, not against it Today we work against nature due to greed and expediency.

    Great documentary. Imagine, these people living around 2500 BCE had sewage systems, dams, air conditioning, and were at the threshold of an industrial age.

    Indus Valley Civilization is truly the glorious SINDH is a country


  39. Please view my video published a few days back: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XWlXNw6_8kA In this video I have proved that theory of Aryanism is a myth and hoax. So when aryanism gets busted Dravida word fades out. And then it becomes clear that India and its culture belongs to all Indians. So I hope my video will enthuse you and resolve the racial issues of India. Main issue of my video program is to say that Ghaggar is not Saraswati but Ghaggar is actually Ganga river. And I have put forth several evidences from Vedas, itihasas, puranas to call ancient Sapta Sindh Valley region as Brahmavartam of Hindu lore. And ultimately River Sindh is proved by me as legendary saraswati river.

  40. At 6:30 you mention they produced cotton but since cotton is native to North America it did not exist in the old world until the discovery of the Americas in the 15th Century, did you mean silk??

  41. The civilization was mainly in Pakistan with the largest and oldest sites in Pakistan not india, also they had extensive contact with Sumerians.

  42. Ancient Roman trade city found near Sivagangai | Archaeologist Discovery and Antiquity, With structure after structure surfacing from under the soil, the massive scale of an ancient urban center that lies buried at Pallisanthai Thidal in Sivaganga district of Tamil Nadu is emerging. Keeladi revealed a Sangam era settlement dated to the 2nd century BCE by radiocarbon dating (The artifacts found in 3-meter depth). if they dig deeper, it could change the history of India and the world. Get ready to change the textbook content.

  43. Loved the video! Fascinating! I find it very interesting that they lived such peaceful lives, no indication of ever being at war with anyone…and a seeming absence of any kind of king/ruler or ruling party. Kind of makes me wonder if there's a correlation there…

  44. Remember when there was only one history channel? Yeah fuck christ. This is my heaven lol. So many history channels. So little time.

  45. It disappeared because of moderate size asteroid hitting the Arabian sea..
    Its crater can be found at the base of Arabian sea close to the costal area of pakistan..

  46. Get this, the patron goddess Inanna was the corn goddess of the Indus well before corn got to the Americas. Darn traders didn't wait for Columbus….

  47. check out keeladi new found civilization 2600 yrs old in south India having link between Indus velley civilization. The written texts having similarity

  48. There are holes in this story of harappa. What race were they? Did the Vedic civilisation precede it? Did the Vedic civilisation precede it elsewhere? Were these harrapans Arab descent? Were they from Sumer?

  49. In your video you shwoed two different areas of arabian peninsula to be the part of indus valley civilization. Is that real?

  50. Wow, mysterious indeed. Seems like they were really advanced in engineering. And very strange how there's no evidence of fighting.

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