Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14

Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14

What do you, as you’re watching me right
now, have in common with a toddler who’s
being read a bedtime story? I’ll give you a clue. It’s also something you have in common with
the kids in The Breakfast Club. As well as with a soldier going through boot
camp. Give up? You’re all being socialized. It’s also the title of the episode. You probably saw that. Each of us is surrounded by people, and those
people become a part of how we act and what
we value. This is known as socialization: the social process
through which we develop our personalities and human
potential and learn about our society and culture. Last time, we talked about the HOW of socialization,
how we learn about the social world. And no matter which of the many theories out there
that you like best, the answer seems to be that we’re
socialized by interacting with other people. But which people? What we didn’t talk about last week was
the WHO of socialization: Who do we learn about the social world from? What people, and what institutions, have made
you who you are today? [Theme Music] Socialization is a life-long process, and
it begins in our families. Mom, Dad, grandparents, siblings – whoever
you’re living with is pretty much your entire
social world when you’re very young. And that’s important, because your family is the
source of what’s known as primary socialization – your first experiences with language, values,
beliefs, behaviors, and norms of your society. Parents and guardians are your first
teachers of everything – from the small stuff like how to brush your teeth to
the big stuff like sex, religion, the law, and politics. The games they play with you, the books they read, the toys they buy for you, all provide you with what French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu called cultural capital – the non-financial assets that help people
succeed in the world. Some of this cultural capital may seem fairly
innocuous – I mean, is reading Goodnight Moon
really making that big of an impact on a toddler? Yes, actually. It teaches the “value” of reading as much
as it helps the child begin to recognize written
language. The presence of books in the home is associated
with children doing well in school. Another important form of socialization that
starts in the home is gender socialization, learning the psychological and social traits
associated with a person’s sex. Gender socialization starts from the moment
that parents decide on a gendered name and when
nurses put a pink or a blue hat on the baby. Other group memberships, like race and class,
are important parts of initial socialization. Race socialization is the process through
which children learn the behaviors, values,
and attitudes associated with racial groups. Racial discrimination is partly the result
of what parents teach their children about
members of other races. And class socialization teaches the norms,
values, traits, and behaviors you develop
based on the social class you’re in. This may help explain why more middle- and
upper-class children go to college. Not only can the families afford to send them,
but these children are expected to attend. They grow up in a home that normalizes college
attendance. Now, gender, race, and class socialization
are all examples of anticipatory socialization – that’s the social process where people
learn to take on the values and standards
of groups that they plan to join . Small children anticipate becoming adults,
for example, and they learn to play the part
by watching their parents. Gender socialization teaches boys to “be
a man” and girls to “be a woman”. But children also learn through secondary
socialization – that’s the process through which children
become socialized outside the home, within
society at large. This often starts with school. Schools are often kids’ first introduction
to things like bureaucracies, as well as systems of rules that require them to be
in certain places at certain times, or act in ways that
may be different from what they learned at home. Not only do schools teach us the three r’s
– reading, ‘riting and ‘rithmetic – but they come with what sociologists call a hidden
curriculum – that is, an education in norms, values,
and beliefs that are passed along through schooling. Take, for example, a spelling bee. Its main goal is to teach literacy and encourage
kids to learn how to spell. But something as seemingly benign as a spelling
bee can have many hidden lessons that stick
with kids, too. For example, it teaches them that doing better
than their peers is rewarding – and it enforces
the idea that the world has winners and losers. Another hidden curriculum of school in general
is to expose kids to a variety of people. When your only socialization is your family,
you just get one perspective on race, class,
religion, politics, et cetera. But once you go out into the world, you meet
many people from many backgrounds, teaching you about race and ethnicity, social class,
disability, gender and sexuality, and more. School becomes not just a classroom for
academic subjects, but also for learning
about different kinds of people. And, of course, schools are also where kids
are exposed to one of the most defining aspects
of school-age life: peer groups. Peer groups are social groups whose members
have interests, social position, and usually
age in common. As you get older, your peer group has a massive
impact on the socialization process. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble to to see
just how big that impact can be. In the late 1950s, American sociologist James
Coleman began studying teenagers – how they interacted and how their social
lives affected their education. He interviewed teens in 11 high schools in the Midwest, asking them questions about what social group they identified with and who else they considered members of their group. Based on these interviews, Coleman identified
four main social categories. And, uh, the names of these categories will
probably sound familiar to you: They were nerds, jocks, leading crowd, and burnouts. Basically, he discovered the 1950s version
of The Breakfast Club. And with these social categories came social
prescriptions – behaviors that were expected
of people in those groups. Coleman found that certain things were important to
the members of certain groups, like being a good dancer
or smoking or having money or getting good grades. He also tested the students’ IQs and assessed
their grades. And surprise! It turned out that who you hung out with affected
how well you did in school. In some of the schools, getting good grades was considered an important criterion for the “leading group” – aka the popular kids– but in other schools, it wasn’t. And in the schools where good grades
were not a sign of popularity, students who scored high on IQ tests actually did
worse on their exams than similarly smart students
at schools where good grades made you popular. Thanks Thought Bubble! Now, Coleman’s study might seem like common
sense – of course you and your friends are
gonna be pretty similar. Don’t we choose to be friends with people
who are like us? Well, not entirely. Coleman’s study showed that we don’t just
pick peer groups that fit into our existing traits – instead, peer groups help mold
what traits we end up with. OK, so far, we have family, schools, and peers
as the main forces that influence someone’s
socialization. But what about me? Yes, me, Nicole Sweeney. Am I part of your socialization? Or more precisely, are youtube videos considered
a form of socialization? Short answer: yes! Long answer: The media you consume are
absolutely a part of your socialization. TV and the internet are huge parts of Americans’
lives. And how we consume our media is affected by
social traits, like class, race, and age. A teenager or twenty-something in 2017 is
much more likely to watch online media, like
Netflix or youtube, than television. And low-income Americans watch much more TV
than their higher-income counterparts. The media we consume also impact us dramatically. The American Academy of Pediatrics, for example,
has said there are connections between excessive television viewing in early childhood and
cognitive, language and social emotional delays. But TV can also influence the attitudes of
viewers, especially young ones. For example, studies have found that kids exposed to Sesame Street in randomized-controlled trial settings, reported more positive attitudes toward people of different races – most likely a result of the program’s wide variety of characters from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. TV also affects us well beyond childhood. One recent study found that MTV’s “16 and
Pregnant” may have acted as a cautionary tale, helping to change teen girls’ attitudes toward
birth control and contributing to declining rates
of teen pregnancy. So far, the types of socialization we’ve
talked about have been fairly subtle — but there are
also more intense types of socialization. Total institutions are places where people
are completely cut off from the outside world,
and face strict rules for how they must behave. First coined by sociologist Erving Goffman, the term “total institution” refers to places like the military, prisons, boarding schools, or psychiatric institutions that control all aspects of their residents’ lives – how they dress, how they speak,
where they eat, where they sleep. And in a total institution, residents undergo resocialization, where their environment is carefully controlled to encourage them to develop a new set of norms, values, or beliefs. They do this by, basically, breaking down
your existing identity and then using rewards
and punishment to build up a whole new you. Think about every boot camp movie you’ve
ever seen. All soldiers are given the same haircut and uniform, expected to reply to questions in the same way, put through the same grueling exercises, and humiliated by the same officer. This process re-socializes the soldiers to put extreme value on their identity within the group, making them more willing to value self-sacrifice if their unit is in danger. So whether you’re GI Jane training for a reconnaissance team or Molly Ringwald trying to maintain her queen-bee status in the leading crowd, the you that you are has been powerfully
shaped by people and institutions. Now, think back on your own life – who has
been the biggest influence on YOUR socialization? Who do you think that you yourself have influenced? Hard questions to answer, maybe, but definitely
worthwhile – and hopefully a little easier now that
you’ve learned how sociologists think about it. Today, we learned about five different types
of socialization. We talked about anticipatory socialization
from your family, like gender norms, that
prepare children for entering society. We discussed the “hidden curriculum” in
schools. We learned about peer groups through a look
at James Coleman’s study of teenage social
groups. We explored the role of media in socialization. And finally, we talked about total institutions
and how they can act as a form of re-socialization. Crash Course Sociology is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl
C. Kinney Studio in Missoula, MT, and it’s made
with the help of all of these nice people. Our animation team is Thought Cafe and Crash
Course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud. If you’d like to keep Crash Course free for
everyone, forever, you can support the series
at Patreon, a crowdfunding platform that allows
you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued

100 thoughts on “Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14

  1. This is a re-upload because there was an error in the original upload (wrong on screen definition for "socialization"). Sorry about that!

  2. A reference to title of Coleman's study would be useful. Wikipedia's article on Coleman does not mention the study that is quoted here. And I think Coleman did not use terms like Nerds and Jocks as category names.

  3. The GenX is more attuned to virtual socialization as they are more in sync with the digitized world.

  4. I'm not even touch the subject of "gender socialization", but "3 R's"? Read, Write and Arithmetics? Dafuq?

  5. Oh look, you missed another opportunity to discuss gender outside of cis experience. Disappointing, Crash Course used to be much better.

  6. I love how you took the example of a spelling bee to illustrate the winner-loser classification as opposed to the traditional sport-based examples usually used to illustrate exactly that in every movie you've seen.

  7. I think trauma, defeat and empathy play a great role. Things such as Trump become president has really made people more alert to what is happening.

  8. I find it a little disappointing that gender, race, class, sexuality, and disability are sort of held up here as the walls and floor of socialization. What about sports, creativity, capitalism, apprenticeship vs liberal arts, political systems, music and dance, etc? By putting things like gender and race at the center of this discussion, I think you accidentally promote a form of gender- and racial- determinism that a lot of people on YouTubers are going to have a hard time with. Ironically, if you taught Sociology in a more neutral way, focusing not on controversial claims but on the methodology and actual results of sociological research, I think you would give people tools to help them have better conversations about those controversial subjects, like where and when gender socialization does and does not happen. Instead, by presenting these big, categorical identities as the primary residence of Sociology, you make it easier for people to write off the whole field as existing only to support gender- and race- essentialism.

  9. Thank you so much Crash Course for starting Sociology. I'm taking sociology in a few days, making things more convenient and hopefully beyond comprehensible with this amazing channel and its content. 🙂

  10. exactly what is it about sociology that grinds y'all's gears…. math and science teach you about the way the universe and the environment and evolution works, and sociology teaches you about the way humans and consequently, the world, works. they're all inherently objective. just because sociology touches on subjects that we have turned into controversies doesn't make sociology itself tendentious. in fact, that's a part of what you learn in sociology. all sciences are equally important. i'm not even gonna say sociology is like, more relevant or anything, it's just another field of study in our pursuit of knowledge, okay? jeez. just shut up and listen.

  11. The sense of reward might also be learned from their sense of need first, like they might fear hunger, and while already having food keeps is in the back of most people now a days, yet then, they learn greed through avoiding the pain, then joy of having opportunity. Then as we develop advanced emotions and then affect how we think today.

  12. it's interesting about peer groups and how they affect us, as i know from experience how this affects people. for example, when i was in primary school (elementary for americans) i used to be a proper goodytwoshoes. for example, in primary i would tell on someone to the teacher if they didn't do their homework or if they swore. know i'm i secondary school (middle school to high school) i will often swear with my friends etc. which is something i would tell on someone for just a few years ago. i still hold some of the some norms and values and religious beliefs and i would still tell on a bully, but if it doesn't affect me or anyone else, i don't really care. this is definitely swayed by my peer groups, as i only really swear with my friends etc. and at the beginning of secondary school before i made these friends, i would easily see myself telling on someoe swearing.

  13. All 5 of my kids are home-schooled, and the first thing everyone says is, well what about the socialization?… LOL and that's the main reason why my kids do not go to public schools because the socialization is absolutely terrible in every Public School in this country, literally.

  14. So, my question is exactly how this differs for people who cannot/won't conform. Like in my case oppositional defiant disorder causes me to be extremely cautious of doing what other people tell me to do or acting in a way that would cause me to seem normal or fit in, it feels dangerous outright. On top of that I'm autistic, so I cannot in a lot of ways even if I spent my life trying.

    So, how do outward influences affect exceptions?

  15. One thing for sure is, the socialization that goes on in the public schools is absolutely horrendous. It seems like almost every teenager I meet has some type of mental issue… I mean people will say it's just normal kid stuff, the way they act…but it's been normalized, it's not actually normal, kids are really messed up.

  16. Hi Nicole, you are amazing! I love how you explain all those specific terms in a so easy and understandable way, I learned so much from you, thank you and Crash Course so much!

  17. Most ppl go to school and come out more ignorant or just as ignorant if they came in. That's why bullying and segregation. How many years has public school been around?

  18. the presence of books in the home is associated with children doing well not in school but in future life also…

  19. I never really thought about how the people we surround ourselves with in school make an impact on how we handle school. This really was a great informational video!

  20. Wouldn't kids expectations of how to socialise influence how they socialise which in turn influences how they do on connens test, which would then influence the media creating the breakfast club, which then influences the kids, reinforcing those original expectations?

  21. Can any one explain what content and practices are in reference to socialization, and what the difference of the two are?

  22. Did she just say race is a real thing and there are differences among them?

    NPCConstructor run exclaim.exe
    ———————— ! ———————-

    B I G O T . O M G.

  23. I am thankful for these videos as I am in a sociology course.

    But I digress, I am not thankful that I have to take sociology (or aka indoctrination studies).

  24. Hello! I would like to have the link of the article of the James Coleman or the name of it. Thanks

  25. GI Jane? Women's participation in the military has been minimal at best. Subliminal manipulation of perceptions or what?

  26. I write a test about this tomorrow and this video is my only good source of information for that. I hope, it will be enough.

  27. As someone who grew up upper-middle-class, while I hold a degree in finance I've developed an intense fascination with class socialization and what different classes emphasize as important. I often wonder if I dress like a preppy banker because that's who I am or because that's what my class socialization has taught me is correct to do.

  28. N.S.: What do you, as you're watching me right now, have in common with a toddler who's being read a bedtime story?
    Me: I have no idea what the person im listening to is about to say.

  29. Hmmm… I have aspergers, so this is all new to me. I never knew that there was a hidden curriculum beyond actual lessons in schools.

  30. This video is pretty old but i'm taking sociology classes this semester and this video really helped me understand sociology better. I even participated more in class because I actually knew some of these terms! Definitely earned my sub!

  31. I didn't really socialise per say, but instead learnt about social norms, conventions and then later post-conventional ideas from reading fiction. It wouldn't be an exaggeration to say that a lot of the moments of shift in perspective, came to me through books.

  32. If only there would relate sociology more to the caribbean, then ill be able to write essays with no problem pertaining to the caribbean

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