Younger Dryas Extinction

Younger Dryas Extinction

12,900 years ago, there was a great extinction
in North America. All animals weighing more than 100 pounds
disappeared along with the paleolithic Clovis culture. The extinction coincided with a period of
global cooling that lasted 1,300 years, called the Younger Dryas cooling event. For many years, scientists thought that the
sudden onset of glacial weather could have caused the extinction, but in 2007 a new publication
by Richard Firestone and several coauthors proposed that the extinction event could have
been caused by the impact of a comet, which also could have caused a global winter. The publication proposed that the extraterrestrial
impact or airburst had occurred over the Great Lakes and that mineral microspherules found
at the Younger Dryas Boundary were the result of the extraterrestrial explosion. The Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis was appealing
because one single event could account for the extinction and the cooling event, but
the hypothesis was widely rejected by geologists, astronomers and physicists because Firestone
and his coauthors had not presented the expected evidence for extraterrestrial impacts, which
includes minerals demonstrating shock metamorphism from the great pressure exerted by a hypervelocity
impact. In 2009, Firestone proposed that Carolina
Bays and the Nebraska Rainwater Basins formed from the shock wave of the comet explosion. The Carolina Bays and the Nebraska basins
are shallow elliptical depressions oriented toward the Great Lakes. Opponents of the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis
pointed out that the diverse dates of the terrain on which the bays are found meant
that the bays had formed over a span of thousands of years, and thus, they could not have formed
from a single cataclysmic event. In 2013, Michael Petaev and several coauthors
found a platinum anomaly at the Younger Dryas Boundary when examining ice cores from the
Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2. Platinum is not a common element in the Earth,
but it is more common in extraterrestrial material. Many years earlier, iridium, another rare
metal, had been used as a marker of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, which implicated an extraterrestrial
impact as the cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs. The platinum anomaly was the type of evidence
needed to strengthen the plausibility of the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis. All that was needed now was to find the crater
and proof of shock metamorphism. In contrast to the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis
that proposed an extraterrestrial event and then tried to find supporting evidence, the
Glacier Ice Impact Hypothesis, published in 2017, was derived from a geometrical analysis
of the Carolina Bays and the Nebraska Rainwater Basins. The analysis found that the prototypical shape
of these geological features is elliptical, and that they can be modeled as mathematical
conic sections. The Glacier Ice Impact Hypothesis proposed
that the Carolina Bays were created by the secondary impacts of glacier ice chunks ejected
by a meteorite impact on the Laurentide Sheet. The impacts of the ejected ice chunks produced
seismic vibrations that liquefied unconsolidated ground, and the ice projectiles created inclined
conical cavities that were remodeled into shallow elliptical bays by viscous relaxation. A supporting experimental model confirmed
that many of the features of the Carolina Bays, such as the raised rims and overlapping
bays, could be explained by the formation of conical impact cavities on a viscous surface
and the subsequent reconstitution of the stratigraphy by viscous relaxation. The experiments also showed that impacts on
viscous ground at ballistic speeds are plastic deformations that do not expose the subsurface
to light, and thus, the dates of the subsurface obtained by Optically Stimulated Luminescence
correspond to the dates of the terrain and not to the date of bay formation. The Glacier Ice Impact Hypothesis used the
convergence point of the Carolina Bays and the Nebraska Rainwater Basins in Saginaw Bay,
Michigan as the site of the extraterrestrial impact. The convergence point had been calculated
in 2010 by Michael Davias using great circle trajectories adjusted for the Coriolis Effect. The Glacier Ice Impact Hypothesis established
a mathematical foundation that can serve as a physics-based model for the Younger Dryas
extraterrestrial impact. The ellipticity of the Carolina Bays is used
to determine the angle of impact, which is also the approximate launch angle of the ice
chunks from Saginaw Bay. Ballistic equations use the distance of the
bays from the convergence point to calculate launch speeds, trajectory heights and duration
of flight. Yield laws correlating energy to crater size
are used to calculate the mass and size of the ice projectiles. The sum of the energies of all the bays is
used to calculate the energy and size of the extraterrestrial impact using the law of conservation
of energy. The explanatory power of the mathematical
model makes it possible to provide a minute-by-minute account of the Younger Dryas extinction event. The orbit of the Earth crosses the debris
fields of various comets. This provides a predictable pattern of Leonid,
Perseid and many other meteor showers every year. There has been some speculation that during
one of these crossings, a large piece of a comet hit the Earth causing the Younger Dryas
extinction. T minus 60 Seconds — Atmospheric effects
on a projectile Sixty seconds before the extraterrestrial
impact, the comet or asteroid would have been entering the Earth’s atmosphere. The atmosphere has a thickness of 100 kilometers,
and a trajectory tangential to the Earth’s surface would take a meteorite approximately
1100 kilometers through the atmosphere. This distance would be traversed in 65 seconds
by an asteroid with a speed of 17 km/sec. A comet with a speed of 50 km/sec would cover
the same distance in 22 seconds. An approach from the northeast toward the
impact point would have taken the extraterrestrial projectile over a portion of Canada covered
by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The ice sheet would have protected the Earth’s
surface from the searing radiant heat of the projectile and there would not have been much
burning. However, Firestone’s 2007 paper and Wolbach’s
2018 papers claim that the passage of the meteorite through the atmosphere would have
ignited forests and caused widespread burning. This means that the extraterrestrial projectile
had to travel over forested land. This would have happened if the meteorite
had approached from the southwest and entered the atmosphere at the Arkansas, Missouri border. The radiant energy of the incandescent projectile
would have burned and blinded fauna, and ignited fires along a broad swath under its 1100 kilometer
trajectory toward the impact point in Saginaw Bay. Within a few seconds, a thunderous shock wave
would have knocked down trees and deafened fauna along a wide corridor under the path
of the projectile. T minus zero – Contact and Compression
The contact and compression stage of an extraterrestrial impact lasts less than one second. The swiftly moving projectile pushes target
material out of its path, compressing it and accelerating it to a high velocity. Most of the projectile’s initial kinetic energy
is transferred to the target in a volume not much larger than the projectile itself. Shock pressures developed during the early
stages of the hypervelocity impact reach hundreds of gigapascals that far exceed the yield strength
of both projectile and target. The great pressure from hyperspeed impacts
creates planar deformation features in quartz crystals that distinguish impact craters from
craters formed by terrestrial processes. Based on the convergence point of the Carolina
Bays and Nebraska Rainwater Basins, the impact point is Saginaw Bay and the crater may be
Huron Lake whose deepest point is perfectly aligned with Saginaw Bay. The law of conservation of energy allows us
to use the energy required to form all the Carolina Bays to estimate the energy of the
extraterrestrial impact, which corresponds to an asteroid with a diameter of 3 kilometers. An impact of this size would create a fireball
with a radius of 30 kilometers that would ignite fires hundreds of kilometers from the
impact site. The fireball would be followed by an airblast
with hurricane force winds that would blow down most trees and strip off the leaves of
the ones that remained standing. Any animals or humans within 500 kilometers
of the explosion would be killed or severely injured, but the worst phase of the extinction
was yet to come. T plus 1 second – Crater Excavation
The excavation phase of an asteroid with a diameter of 3 kilometers lasts approximately
30 seconds. During the excavation phase, a hemispherical
shock wave propagates into the target. The decompression that follows the shock wave
of the impact sets target material in motion and starts opening a crater and ejecting material
ballistically. Some of the earliest and fastest ejecta consist
of the vaporized projectile, which is dispersed in an expanding vapor plume. The last debris ejected from the extraterrestrial
impact has the least energy and starts falling close around the crater. The formation of the vapor plume for an impact
on ice requires a lot of energy because the ice has to undergo two phase transitions,
first into liquid water and then into steam. The vapor plume cools as it expands, and minerals
vaporized from the projectile and target condense into microscopic spherules that are carried
far and wide by the atmosphere. The platinum contained within the meteorite
is vaporized and distributed in the same manner. The expanding vapor plume at the impact site
accelerated the ice chunks ejected from the Laurentide Ice Sheet and sent them in ballistic
trajectories with launch angles averaging 35 degrees and speeds of 3 to 4 kilometers
per second. From the volume of the ice boulders that formed
the Carolina Bays, we can estimate that the extraterrestrial impact made a crater 44 kilometers
wide on the ice sheet. The thick layer of ice dissipated much of
the meteorite’s energy and prevented the formation of a typical extraterrestrial impact
crater on the land. The high-temperature vapor plume of the extraterrestrial
blast in Michigan created a high pressure shock wave that expanded around the impact
area and disrupted the jet stream. This would have caused changes in the atmospheric
circulation patterns that resulted in unusual weather events. T plus 30 seconds – Crater Modification
The modification stage begins after the crater has been fully excavated. The bowl-shaped transient crater created during
excavation collapses under gravity as loose debris slides down the interior walls of the
crater. The crater from the impact on Laurentide Ice
Sheet was immediately filled by ice calving off the glacier and by water from the ice
melting around the cavity. The impact site became a boiling cauldron
producing clouds of steam as the water quenched the incandescent ground. The hot water at the impact site found a path
toward lower terrain and under the glacier. The water under the glacier created drumlins,
which are streamlined mounds shaped by the flow of water. The melt water also buoyed the glacier and
lubricated its movement toward the sea. T plus 3 minutes – Seismic shock waves reach
the East Coast The Clovis people and the fauna in the East
Coast would have seen the bright flash of the extraterrestrial impact in the northwest. The seismic shock waves from the cosmic collision
traveling at approximately 5 to 8 km/s reached the East Coast three to five minutes after
the flash. By this time, the sky was ominously dark as
the ejected glacier ice boulders approached in suborbital space trajectories. The ballistic equations tell us that the ice
boulders reached heights of 150 to 370 kilometers above the surface of the Earth, well above
the atmosphere. Water ejected above the atmosphere or carried
by the ice boulders turned into ice crystals that also darkened the sky. These ice crystals went into low Earth orbit
and blocked the light of the Sun for hundreds of years until they turned into water vapor
by sublimation. Some of the boulders collided in mid-flight
and their trajectories were diverted. These deflected ice boulders would eventually
produce heart-shaped bays when they hit the surface. T plus 6 minutes to T plus 9 minutes – Glacier
ice bombardment The saturation bombardment by the glacier
ice chunks was the most lethal part of the extraterrestrial impact. The blast from the initial contact had a kill
radius of 500 kilometers, whereas the secondary impacts of the ice boulders had a kill radius
of 1500 kilometers. The ice boulders re-entered the atmosphere
at eleven times the speed of sound. The leading surfaces of the ice formed shock
fronts of steam that left condensation trails in the atmosphere that further darkened the
sky. Small bays of 200 meters, approximately the
length of two football fields, were made by ice projectiles with energies of 13 kilotons
of TNT. This is about the energy of the bomb dropped
on Hiroshima. Bays of one kilometer were made by ice projectiles
the size of Yankee Stadium with energies of 3 megatons. The impacts were accompanied by deafening
sonic booms. The seismic vibrations of impacts on unconsolidated
ground close to the water table liquefied the ground and allowed the impacts to form
inclined conical cavities, which became shallow elliptical bays by viscous relaxation. Ice boulders hitting hard ground shattered
on impact producing deadly high-velocity ice shards. All along the East Coast from New Jersey to
northern Florida, where the bays have been preserved, there is not a tract of land that
is not completely covered with Carolina Bays. This means that no matter where you stood
or where you tried to take shelter, an ice boulder would hit you and kill you. The trembling ground and the quagmire created
by liquefaction made futile any attempt at running. All living things within 1500 kilometers of
the extraterrestrial impact site were doomed. The areas without Carolina Bays within this
circle were also bombarded with the same violent intensity, but because the ground was hard,
the ice boulders disintegrated explosively without forming conical cavities. The description of the Orleton Farms mastodon
shows that it suffered a violent end that could have been the result of death by high-velocity
ice shards. Unfortunately, the mastodon remains were not
dated, and it cannot be said with certainty that the death occurred at the Younger Dryas
Boundary. The report says that “The skeleton proved
to be badly disturbed and the bones crushed and broken. As an example of the amount of disturbance,
one of the ribs lay beneath one of the tusks, while another was thrust through an aperture
in the pelvis; a shoulder blade rested to the right of the skull and one of the large
neck vertebrae was found about ten feet from the skull, near a portion of the pelvis. In spite of the wide dislocation of the parts,
the bones of one of the feet remained intact and in place, very possibly in the spot where
the animal last stepped.” T plus 10 minutes – Ice bombardment stops
By ten minutes after the extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet, most the
ejected ice boulders had completed their trajectories with noisy landings, but the noise did not
stop when the bombardment stopped. Sound traveled more slowly than the ice projectiles,
and the sound of distant impacts continued to rumble like far-away thunder. The land was shrouded in darkness by the vapor
trails and the ice crystals that blocked the light of the Sun. The air was thick with moisture, dust and
smoke. After the saturation bombardment, the sandy
soil close to the water table was covered with elliptical Carolina Bays and hard ground
was covered by half a meter of ice from the ballistic hailstorm. T plus 2 hours
The extraterrestrial impact site had a lot of residual heat that started melting the
surrounding glacier. As the melt water started flowing, massive
flooding washed away evidence of the extraterrestrial impact. The ice dust produced by the bombardment on
hard surfaces drifted beyond the 1500 kilometer impact zone and covered the vegetation. The ice dust smothered plant life and created
moist conditions that promoted growth of algae that formed black mats. The soil layer with black mats marks the Younger
Dryas Boundary and occurs mostly beyond the 1500 km radius where the secondary glacier
ice bombardment occurred. Vance Haynes attributes the black mats to
relatively moist conditions as a result of higher water tables, indicated by the presence
of wet-meadow soils, algal mats and pond sediments. Some black mats do not have enough charcoal
to indicate extensive biomass burning. T plus 24 hours and beyond
A day after the cataclysm, injured survivors, including the deaf, blind, wounded or burned,
continued to die. Animals that survived the ice bombardment,
mostly small burrowing dwellers, started to dig out and emerged into a gloomy alien landscape
where life would be much harder than before. Fauna outside the 1500 kilometer boulder impact
zone were also affected by the darkness and the colder weather. The devastated landscape was inhospitable
for many hungry survivors. The ones that could not adapt eventually suffered
a gradual extinction from the sudden ecological change. The destabilization of the Laurentide Ice
Sheet triggered massive flooding that raised the level of the sea by several dozen meters
and disrupted the circulation of ocean currents. The rising sea water flooded continental seashores
and covered many islands populated by humans. This great flooding event may have contributed
to the ancient stories of Atlantis and a biblical flood. How do we know all this? Many of the clues to the past are written
in the Earth’s physical structure. Geologists can interpret the distinctive signatures
left by impacts, glaciers, water and wind to reconstruct previous geological events. American physicist Richard Feynman said in
1964: “Mathematics is a tool for reasoning. … By mathematics, it is possible to connect
one statement to another.” The scenario presented here is deduced from
the geological record, the elliptical geometry of the Carolina Bays, and the convergence
of the bays by the Great Lakes, which makes possible the use a physics-based model to
reconstruct the events that led to the extinction of the megafauna 12,900 years ago.

61 thoughts on “Younger Dryas Extinction

  1. Great video as always.  As bad as everything you just mentioned I would guess some airborne ice could have overshot the bays, hit the Atlantic and a created mega tsunami.  I would think maybe the impact possibly triggered some earthquake/volcanic activity.

  2. great knowledge for understanding the mechanics of how such impacts affect earth. great presentation as well. love it.

  3. Another intelligent, intriguing presentation! Just another nail in the coffin of the argument against the impact hypothesis. Thank you for all the hard work and excellent videos

  4. How many different species must there have been that we have not recovered a sample of. Becoming a fossil requires almost exact condition to be right. Some areas just do not make fossils.

  5. Thank you for such a magnificently well presented near-proof theory! With this work hopefully we can start to fully prove this hypothesis and contextualize this event into human and earth history so as to understand our origins further! This information should be included in textbooks in schools throughout the world very soon!

  6. It was a bad millennium: multiple comet impacts, unparalleled earthquakes, liquefaction of the soil near high water tables, massive suborbital ice impacts, abrupt extinction of the food supply, sweeping continental fires, tsunami, long-term climate cooling from the orbital ice crystals, years of darkness and perpetual dawn, and torrential storms and high winds.

  7. Why don't you give credit to the book "When the Earth Nearly Died" published in 1994 that also provided evidence of a catastrophic event around 9300 BC ??

  8. Mr. Zamora.
    Excellent information, your research presented very well. How can anyone argue these facts. You even used the intelligent measure, of football fields, so that our educated simple-minded simpletons at least have a sliver of a chance, in understanding your research and presentation.
    Thank you Sir, very much for your impressive work on this subject material, and for producing this type of informative video.

  9. Thank you Mr Zamora for such a comprehensive magical presentation which a layman (passionately interested in world sciences) like me can understand and imagine. I can never have enough of this sort of presentation. I am certain I shall watch this many times again.

  10. As the ejected blocks of ice impacted the earth's surface, dirt, rock, and mud were necessarily displaced. You can see the mounds of this ejecta at the (southern) end of each Carolina bay. Surely, some of the flora would have been instantly buried by this material. Has anyone yet excavated these mounds?

  11. The only thing I haven't seen answers for is how a wooly mammoth got frozen threw and threw in less then 10 hours. How sway!? 😂 lbs

  12. Hi Anthony – I was listening to Den of Lore pod cast # 51 – Younger Dryas Impact & Carolina Bays interview with George Howard ( Co-author of the Firestone paper) and he mentions the black mat in Europe has fire related carbon while the US does not. Could the trajectory then be east west? Given the roughly triangular shape of the black mat field it would make one think it entered the atmosphere over Europe and the intense heat started the fires and it exploded at Saginaw. The pod cast #43 with Charles O'dale discusses 5 Canadian craters from that same time period and posits the theory suggesting either a break up of the impact or multiple ones similar to Shoemaker- Levy.


  13. Mr. Zamora – I found this article in that I thought you might find as interesting as I did.

    Researchers uncovered carvings in the sandstone pillars of Globeki-Tepi (southern Turkey!) that appear to reference a devastating comet at the onset of the Younger-Dryas. Perhaps this is old news to you. The article is only a synopsis, the full research paper was printed in the journal Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry.

  14. The evidence of the impacts at Carolina bays is quite clear looking at google earth you are looking at secondary impacts of stuff thrown out–which would have been a massive area and we see only a few. Seems like there are always people in their fields that are "contradictorians by nature". Like about 15 years ago I remember a guy battling Baker–"well there are those that want you to believe a flock of birds are dinosaurs but they arent" WELL THEY ARE–that person is now washed up and in a new career. The same thing will occur with the experts who are blockheads and will be cast aside in their field. Google earth quite clearly shows a moonscape.

  15. Brilliant!! Now can this shed light on the so-called Scablands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States? Can this be linked somehow to the original work of J Harlen Bretz?

  16. Exquisitely coherent: 100% pertinent data – 0% fluff. Beautiful collation of our present 'best guess'.
    With this scenario, investigation can move forward.

  17. I'm still convinced that the Electric Universe with Dave Talbot's Comparative mythology off the back of Velikovsky connected to modern day plasma physics by Anthony Paratt still adds further depth to this fantastic emerging story of ourselves! Admittedly I'm still skeptical of the polar configuration but then substitute in a bit of Robert Schoch's Solar outburst theory or what is it…SIDA = Solar Induced Dark Age. If what powers up the sun fluctuated and increased or like what we watched in jupiter with shoemaker levy and several large impacts from comet streams could also send out massive CMEs that could irradiate large swaths of the earth's surface. Solid as any explanation that factors in the underground dwellings ALL over the place! Fascinating subject and it is all connected. Thanks for a great presentation. Quick with depth. Cheers!

  18. What amount of material would there have been beyond the north pole? Could a similar layer of debris have ended up in the area of Russia inhabited by the mammoths? An old book I read called the ellipses Carolina Craters. When did the name change? Excellent work, good luck.

  19. Senor Zamora, is there any chance this asteroid / comet could have came into the atmosphere and impacted in a more perpendicular angle than an approach from the South West?
    Would that explain the massive amount of ejecta in the Carolinas and in the Midwest/ Nebraska etc.?
    Or maybe what I'm asking is, what angle do you think the asteroid / comet had when impacting Earth?

  20. I believe now with the 20 mile diameter crater found in Greenland we know that Saginaw Bay was not the impact area! The impact area was just a little farther to the north and east in Greenland! Other smaller fragmentary pieces undoubtedly impacted in other areas and the impact in Greenland threw up large ice balls of debris which spread out up to 1000 miles from the impact area coming down all over in a wide arc. Perhaps these large flying ice chunks were what did damages such as described here and elsewhere. We also see now that the city of Atlas has been found. AKA Atlantis which means CITY OF ATLAS, the oldest son of Poseidon. That is in NW Africa in the Richat Basin or Eye of the Sahara. No doubt another impact area happened off the coast there as well. Legend says three large chunks of the comet broke apart striking the earth in three places. I suppose a smaller chunk could have landed in Saginaw but the truth is they found evidence now for this theory which was just off by a tad for the suspected impact area.

  21. Isnt there a huge crater covering the whole area?
    Look at geological maps….

    Like this one.

    Looks like a crater to me

  22. What a terrifying event not only the initial hit but the long cold winter that followed! This incredible finding surely must change up how often they think we go through one of these events! After all isn't that where our ocean comes from?

  23. Did the cattle, bison, deer, elk, and moose also die (in the North American areas)? If not, then why would some (but not other) megafauna go extinct?

  24. I went to a scientific article that said this obviously didn't happen because their isn't a crater to support the claim…

    except they provided evidence for the ash and dust deposit…

    Not to mention just a few years later NASA found a Crater larger than Paris under the Greenland ice-sheet, and dated it at 12,000 to 100,000 years old.

  25. Interesting how computerized ballistic tools can be utilized to reveal the truth of the Younger Dryas event or the JFK event. Something 12,900 years ago or something 56 years ago. A cosmic drive-by shooting or a seven-man assassination team.

  26. Except, Buffalo survived and they weigh way more than 100 pounds.
    However, the Iceland impact makes so much more sense than early “Americans” hunted the mega fauna to extension.

  27. Very good and I'm convinced. At the end however you make an error (19:12). The amount that the sea level rose was an order of magnitude less than several hundreds of meters.

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